明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月18日 07:18:49
China is considering extending hukou, or household registration, to 13 million unregistered citizens, according to the Ministry of Public Security.据公安部表示,中国计划将1300万“黑户”人口纳入户籍人员之列。Minister of Public Security Guo Shengkun presided over a meeting on Saturday to discuss the issue.Registration is a fundamental right for all citizens that is endorsed by the constitution and the law, according to the meeting.公安部高胜坤周六在主持一次会议时讨论了这个问题。会议指示,按照国家和法律规定,户籍登记是每位公民拥有的合法权利。According to the National Population Census in 2010, there are 13 million unregistered people nationwide, accounting for 1 percent of the country#39;s population.根据2010年全国人口普查,全国共有1300万“黑户”人口,占据总人口的1%。Without a hukou, a person is denied access to public education, reimbursement for healthcare costs and other welfare benefits.Parents who were unable to have more than one child under the old family planning policy, cannot register their children unless they pay a significant sum of money.如果一个人没有户口,他就没法上学,就医不能享受医疗保险和很多其他的社会福利。在传统的计划生育政策下,夫妇如果不缴纳巨额罚款就无法生育二胎。More than 60 percent of China#39;s unregistered people are in this category, according to research in 2014 by the Institute of Social Development at the National Development and Reform Commission.Other unregistered people include abandoned children, children born out of wedlock and those whose documents are missing.根据2014年国家发改委社会发展部门的调查, “超生”人口占据了“黑户”人口的60%。其他“黑户”人口包括孤儿、非婚生子女以及丢失文件的人。The research found that unregistered people tend to lack a sense of personal security, as they are excluded from the social security system. Without legal documents that identify them, unregistered people cannot travel long distances easily, which restricts population mobility, the research found.研究发现无户籍的人口因为被排除在社保体系之外,他们缺乏个人的安全感。研究发现,因为没有合法身份件明自己的存在,“黑户”人员不能长距离旅行,这样也限制了人口流动。Social instability increases and social inequalities escalate if some people are excluded from the hukou system, the ministry said during Saturday#39;s meeting.周六会议上,公安部表示,如果一些人没有户口,这会增加社会的不稳定性和加剧社会的不公平。The ministry declared its intention to help unregistered people obtain proper recognition and protect every citizens#39; right to hukou.公安部表示了其将帮助非户籍人口获得合法认可,保护每位公民的户口权利。Since the Third Plenum of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in 2013, the top leadership has issued several documents on hukou reform, signaling a determination to reform the system.2013年中央第十八届三中全会第三次会议以来,中央领导先后多次发布对户口进行改革的方案,确定了改革的决心。In late 2013, the government first relaxed the family planning policy, allowing couples to have a second child if one spouse was an only child.2013年底,政府第一次放宽了计划生育政策,允许夫妻双方一方为独生子的即可生育二胎。In October, China introduced an overall two-child policy, reducing the possibility of people remaining unregistered due to a violation of the country#39;s laws.今年10月,中国全面放开二胎政策,降低了因违法法律而增加未登记户口的人员的可能性。 /201511/412374

  The Ten States are Wu,the Southern Tang,the Former Shu,the Later Shu, Wuyue,Chu,Min,the Southern Han,the Later Liang and the Northern Han.十国指吴国、南唐、前蜀、后蜀、吴越、楚、闽、南汉、后梁和北汉。With the Nortern Han in the North and the other states were all in the Southern part of China.除北汉在北方外,其余各国在中国南部。The development of the states in the South contributed a lot to the progress of South China.各国在中国南方的发展对南方的开发起到了重大作用。These states were established about the time when the Later Liang was founded.The founders of these states formerly had all been garrison commanders during the later period of the Tang Dynasty.南方的十国建立于后梁晚期,创建者都是晚唐时期的节度使。The State of Wu and the Later Tang : The State of Wu was founded by Yang Xingmi, who was a garrison commander in Huainan. He won his fame and power when suppressing the uprising of the peasants and fighting with other warlords.吴国和南唐:吴的开创者杨行密,在镇压农民起义和军阀混战中被唐朝提升为淮南节度使。In 902,,he was granted as King of Wu by the Emperor Zhaozhong of the Tang with Yangzhou as capital.公元902年,唐昭宗封他为吴王,建都扬州。After that Yangpu was made to be Emperor of Wu by Xu Wen, his chancellor, with the State title Wu.到杨溥在位时,丞相徐温等立杨溥为天子,国号吴。However, at this moment, Yang’s family owned no real power in the court and Xu Wen’s son,Xu Zhigao dethrone Yangpu , became the emperor and set up the Tang with Jinling as capital. Then he changed his name to Li Bian later, known as the Southern Tang, which was destroyed by the Northern Song when the last emperor Li Yu was in the reign.但此时,杨氏大权早已旁落。公元937年,徐温的养子徐知诰废杨溥自立,国号唐,建都金陵,改姓名为李,史称“南唐”。到后主李煜时,南唐为北宋所灭。The State of Former and Later Shu:The State of Former Shu was founded by Wang Jian who was a garrison commander in Bizhou (now Daojiang, Sichuan) of Tang. From 894, he occupied Xichuan, Dongchuan and Hanzhong in succession and announced to be the emperor in Chengdu with the name of Shu.前、后蜀:唐壁州(四川导江)刺史王建,从公元894年开始,先后兼并西川、东川和汉中之地。This was the Former Shu in history.后梁建立,他在成都称帝,国号蜀,史称“前蜀”。When Wang Yan, son of Wang Jian came to the throne, people suffered from his exorbitant taxes and severe punishment.其子王衍继位,以奢侈荒淫、刻剥百姓著称。In 925, Zhuang-zong of the Later Tang sent troops to destroy Shu and transferred Meng Zhixiang to be the associated garrison in commander.925年,后唐庄宗派兵灭前蜀,用孟知祥(李克用侄女婿)为剑南西川节度副大使。In 926, Meng Zhixiang entered Chengdu ,reformed the political system and lighted the taxes. He also seized Dongchuan from the Former Shu.公元926年,孟知祥入成都,整顿吏治,减少苛税,攻占东川。In 934, Meng Zhixiang proclaimed to be emperor of Shu, with Chengdu as capital, which was recorded as the Later Shu in history.公元934年,他在成都称帝,国号蜀,史称“后蜀”。After Meng Zhixiang died, his son, Mengchang, the new emperor took Fengzhou and extended his territory as wide as that of the Former Shu.当年孟知祥死,子孟昶继位,又攻取凤州,疆域与前蜀相同。However, he committed the same ill-ruling as Wang Yan exploited and suppressed his officials and citizens ferociously.但孟昶和王衍一样,残酷剥削压榨高官、百姓,奢侈成性。And in 965, the Later Shu was ended by the Northern Song.965年为北宋所灭。The State of Wuyue:The State of Wuyue was established by Qian Liu who was the garrison commander of Zhenhai in 893.吴越:吴越的创建者钱镠,在公元893年被唐昭宗任命为镇海节度使。He won his position in charge of Zhen-hai and Zhendong while fighting with warlord Dong Chang in Yuezhou.不久, 因讨越州军阀董昌有功,升任镇海、镇东两军节度使。In 907, Qian Liu was granted as the King of Wuyue with Hangzhou as capital.公元907年,后梁封他为吴越王,建都于杭州,拥有两浙之地。His kingdom embraced Zhejiang, and there were scarcely wars agitated in this period which retained the time for economic and agricultural development.这一地区战争很少,生产发达,经济繁荣。Their regime lasted five generations to Qian Chu and was finally ruined by the Northern Song Dynasty.钱氏政权五传至钱镠,于978年降于北宋。The State of Chu:The State of Chu was founded by Ma Yin.楚:唐末,马殷割据湖南。In 907, he was acknowledged as King of Chu by the Later Liang and Tanzhou (Changsha, Hunan now) was the capital. There was a chaos among his sons in the court for the posiDynasty.公元907年,后梁封他为楚王,都于潭州(长沙)。公元927年,马殷死,诸子争立,政局混乱,公元963年为北宋所灭。The State of Min:The State of Min was set up by Wang Shenzhi who followed his elder brother Wang Chao to Fuzhou (Fujian province now). In 897, Wang Shenzhi succeeded his brothers position as the garrison commander and was later granted as King of Min taking charging of Quanzhou and Tingzhou. Other successors of the Min were all tyrannies therefore caused constant confusion within the state and received downfall from the Southern Tang.闽:公元893年,王审知随其兄王潮据福州(今福建),公元897年,继王潮为威武军节度使。公元909年,后梁封他为闽王,据有泉、汀等地。王审知死后,继位的都是暴君,内乱不休,公元945年被南唐攻灭。The State of Southern Han : In 905, Liu Yin was a garrison commander of Jinghai in the Tang Dynasty.南汉:公元905年,刘隐为唐静海军节度使。In 907, he was granted as King of Dapeng and his brother, Liu Ying after succeed him, extended his territory and proclaimed to be emperor of Yue in 917 with Guangzhou as capital. In the following year, he renamed his regime Han, which was the Southern Han in Chinese history.公元907年,后梁封他为大彭郡王。隐弟刘葵继位后,扩大了势力范围,于公元917年称帝,国号越,建都广州,次年改国号为汉,史称“南汉”。The rulers of the Southern Han were extravagant and cruel therefore caused an intense class contradictory. In 971, the Southern Han was also taken over by the Northern Song.南汉君主都极其奢侈,统治十分残暴,境内阶级矛盾非常尖锐,公元971年为北宋所灭。The State of Later Liang : In 907, Gao Jixing, was a garrison commander in Jingnan during the period of the Later Liang.后梁:公元907年,后梁任命高季兴为荆南节度使。In 924, he was granted King Nanping with Jiangling as cspital, owning only Jingzhou, which was the smallest state.924年,后唐庄宗封他为南平王,都于江陵,仅有荆州一地,是十国中最弱小的一国。In 963,it was taken over by the Northern Song.公元963年亡于北宋。The State of Northern Han : The State of Northern Han by Liu Chong appeared somewhat later than the others, it was established towards the end of the Later Tang, during the period of the Later Jin, and the Later Zhou.北汉:北汉为后汉高祖之弟刘崇所建,是建国最晚的一个,成立后唐末期、后晋和后周之间。In 951, located in the east of the Yellow River, Liu Chong declared to be emperor with Taiyuan as capital and still took Han as its name. It was the Northern Han in Chinese history.公元951年,刘崇据河东之地,在太原称帝,仍以汉为国号,史称“北汉”。The Northern Han was based on weak economy on which its people suffered from the heavy taxes for military expenditure and payment to Qidan in the north. To earn a living was terribly hard in the Northern Han and there were acute social struggles within.北汉“土瘠民贫,内供军国,外奉契丹,赋繁役重,民不聊生”,社会矛盾十分尖锐。In 979 the Northern Song took over it.公元979年被北宋所灭。Along with the improvement of handicrafts, the economy of the south was booming.随着手工业的发展,南方的商业也相当活跃。Hangzhou, the capital of Wuyue, grew into a prosperous metropolis in the southeaster of China enjoying the faming of the richest and thriftiest city that could be compared to the heaven.吴越都城杭州,已成为东南繁荣 的大都市富兼华夷”,“百事繁庶”,有“地上天宫”之称。Chengdu was also well-developed and famous for its silks, herb medicine and jewels concerning the amount of goods exchange.成都市场也相当繁荣,有蚕市、药市、珠宝市,市场交易量很大。Besides, there were many trades by sea.valley after the periods of growth in the five Dynasties.此外,当时的海上贸易也相当活跃。According to the demographic toll at the dawn of the Northern Song that there were 2. 3 million people was added to the Song’s original 1 milliom after removing all the small states in the south.经过五代时期的发展,全国的经济重心已从黄河流域逐渐转移到长江流域。据北宋初年统计,北方人口只有100多万户,后来陆续平定南方诸国,又得230多万户。This indicated that the population of the south was double that of the north which meant the progressive surplus of the north in economy and a gradually prominent position in imperial China.可见南方人口已经超过北方二倍。这说明南方经济的发展日益超过北方, 越来越在全国占据重要的地位。 /201602/421849

  Each year as Christmas rolls around, there always seems to be one toy that appears on every child#39;s list to Santa.每年圣诞节来临的时候,总有那么一款每个孩子都想要的圣诞礼物。But this year, that toy is quickly becoming the cause of despair amongst parents - many sick of spending hours removing the small spiky balls from their child#39;s long hair.但今年的这款“热门”玩具可谓是家长们的噩梦,这种缠在孩子长发上的扎人小球让很多家长都崩溃了。Social media has been flooded with images of tangled tresses and warnings from parents about the popular Bunchems pack, which is made up of over 400 sticky, squishy marble-sized building balls - each adorned with tiny hooks.社交媒体上铺天盖地的都是各种缠瞎了的头发照片和家长们建议不要购买这款玩具的热心忠告。这款火爆的拼装玩具名叫“Bunchems”,内含400多个又黏又软的小球,每个只有弹珠那么大,上面带着小小的“倒刺”。The description alone was a red flag for many, but those who didn#39;t foresee the potential of the colourful balls to become wedged in hair found out the hard way.虽然只看玩具描述就能让很多家长望而却步,但有些人完全没料到这些色小球缠头发的功力,因此吃了不少苦头。#39;A toy spawned from the darkest depths of hell,#39; one disgruntled customer wrote.一位顾客愤愤地写道:“这个玩具是从地狱最黑暗的底层蹦出来的!”#39;Horrible, horrible, horrible toy for kids. I just spent the last TWO AND A HALF hours (absolutely, 100 percent not an exaggeration) attempting to remove 14 of these b*****d balls out of my daughter#39;s hair.#39;“真是个特别特别特别可怕的儿童玩具。我刚花了两个半小时(绝对毫无夸张)从我闺女的头发上解下来14个该死的小球。”#39;Buy this toy for someone if you hate them or their child. They are the most incredible choking hazards on the planet. They bring pain and misery, tears, fighting, broken and ripped hair, and questions of one#39;s sanity in handling life in general.#39;“恨谁就给谁家孩子买这个玩具吧!它们是这个世界上最不可思议、最令人窒息的祸害。它带来的只有痛苦、悲哀、眼泪、纠结以及断掉的、撕扯下来的头发,再也无法理智地面对生活了。”#39;Great if you want to pay 0 to have them professionally removed from the hair,#39; another wrote.还有人写道:“你最好花上200美元找专业人士帮你把这些球解下来。”#39;I am a hairstylist and spent a total of 4 hours removing these from a little girls hair today! She had 45 of them matted into her hair! 4 hours of pain and 0 later ..... Not really worth it.#39;“我是个发型师,今天我花了整整四个小时从一个小姑娘头上解这些球!她头发上居然缠了45个球!她遭了整整四个小时的罪还得给我200美元……只能说真的不值!”But considering Target Australia has aly sold out of the Bunchems Mega Pack, the reviews appear to be making little impact on parents shopping for Christmas and many stand by the controversial toy.虽然这款玩具引发这么多争议,但在澳大利亚的“塔吉特”百货商场,就连超大包的“Bunchems”都卖光了。看来上面这些评价对圣诞采购的父母以及这款玩具的持者来说几乎没任何影响。#39;These are awesome. Reading these reviews are ridiculous. These are such a good toy,#39; a frustrated Dad wrote.一位没买到玩具的沮丧父亲写道:“这玩具多好啊!大家的评价都太可笑了。这款玩具真的不错。”#39;Hair tangles? The warnings are both on the instructions and box. How do these possibly get SO ENTANGLED in hair, when they are ;brushed against;? No, your kids are obviously doing something they shouldn#39;t be doing.#39;“缠头发上了?玩具说明书和包装盒上都有注意事项啊,怎么可能碰一下头发就缠得这么死?肯定是你家孩子瞎玩弄的。”#39;Let#39;s say you have a Honda, and got into an accident. Would you call the dealership or manufacturer? No. Blame yourself, or the at-fault person...this infuriates me. This is such a creative toy. Builds motor skills, and enhances creativity.#39;“这么说吧,比如你开着辆本田撞车了,你会给经销商或者制造商打电话投诉吗?肯定不会啊!只能怪自己或责任方……这些瞎的人真是气死我了。这款玩具多有创意啊,培养动手能力,还提高了孩子的创造力。” /201511/412587。



  A few months ago, I stood at the corner of a busy roundabout called Place Lamartine, across from the Roman gates leading into Arles in southern France, on a spot that was pivotal in the life of Vincent van Gogh. Behind me was the Rhone River, where he painted sparkling reflections from the quay on one particularly memorable starry night. Before me was a run-down commercial strip leading toward vast fields of the sunflowers he painted time and again.几个月前,我站在人来人往的拉马丁广场的拐角,马路对面是进入法国南部阿尔勒的古罗马门。这个地方对文森特·梵高(Vincent van Gogh)的一生都至关重要。我身后是罗纳河,一个繁星满天的夜晚,梵高曾在这里的码头画下了河中闪烁的倒影。在我面前是一条破败的商业街,通向大片大片的向日葵花海,而它们曾一次次地出现在梵高的画作中。It was where Vincent van Gogh’s Yellow House once stood, the sun-drenched Proven home that was the subject of his 1888 oil painting, where he took a period of “enforced rest” as he put it, in a pale violet-walled “Bedroom” he depicted in oil paintings three times that year.这里曾经矗立着梵高的黄房子,那个洒满阳光的普罗旺斯住宅是他1888年的油画的主角。用梵高自己的话来说,他曾在里面度过了一段“集中休憩”的时光,“卧室”的墙壁是淡紫色的,那一年曾三次出现在他的油画中。The little house contained legends: It was where one of the world’s most famous artists pushed his painting technique to its peak with works such as “Café Terrace at Night,” “Sunflowers” and “The Sower.” And it was where his personal life turned a dramatic and tragic corner. Here, van Gogh had a tumultuous fight with his friend, Paul Gauguin, and sliced a blade through his own ear, before admitting himself to the local mental hospital.这栋小房子充满了传奇色:在这里,世界最负盛名的艺术家之一把自己的绘画技术推向了巅峰,创作了《夜晚露天咖啡座》、《向日葵》和《播种者》等作品。在这里,梵高的个人生活出现了戏剧性和悲剧性的转折。在这里,他与好友保罗·高更(Paul Gauguin)发生了激烈的争吵,用刀割掉了自己的耳朵,入住了当地的精神病医院。From March to August, I traveled to many of the landmarks of van Gogh’s artistic life, beginning in the Belgian mining town of Mons, where the 27-year-old Dutchman was fired from his job as a missionary working among local coal miners for “undermining the dignity of the priesthood” by opting to live in the same squalid conditions as the miners — and where he instead began to draw. From there, I traveled to his renowned painting locations, Montmartre in Paris and Arles and St. Rémy in Provence, and ultimately to the Parisian suburb of Auvers-sur-Oise, where his life was cut short in his 37th year.去年3月到8月,我造访了梵高艺术生涯中的许多重要地点,起点是比利时矿业城市蒙斯。27岁的荷兰人梵高曾在那里失去了在当地煤矿公司传教的工作,原因是他选择和矿工生活在同样肮脏的环境里,“破坏了传道士的尊严”,并开始在画画。此后,我来到了他一些知名画作的诞生地,巴黎的蒙马特、普罗旺斯的圣雷米和阿尔勒,最后是见梵高匆匆走完37年人生的瓦兹河畔欧韦。I was on the trail of the artist during Van Gogh Europe 2015, the year that commemorates the 125th anniversary of his death, observed by cultural events and exhibitions related to van Gogh throughout the Netherlands, Belgium and France. What struck me was that, considering how famous and beloved van Gogh is, there are a number of historical landmarks of his life that have not been preserved, or are neglected. A few spots, however — such as van Gogh’s room at the asylum in St.-Rémy-de-Provence and his hotel room in Auvers-sur-Oise, where he died — have been handsomely renovated to great effect for visitors interested in the artist’s life, and for the local communities, which benefit economically from this form of gentle cultural tourism. 我的梵高之旅正好赶上了2015欧洲梵高年。为了纪念梵高逝世125周年,荷兰、比利时和法国举办了大量文化活动和与梵高有关的展览。让我难以置信的是,虽然梵高享有如此的声望和爱戴,他生命中好几处重要地标竟然没有被保护起来,或者无人问津。不过,有几个位置——比如梵高在普罗旺斯的圣雷米的精神病院房间,以及他度过最后人生的瓦兹河畔欧韦的酒店房间,都被精心地修葺,迎接着对这位艺术家的人生感兴趣的游客和当地居民。当地人也从这种轻文化旅游中获得了丰厚的经济利益。Hoping to replicate these strong examples, officials involved in Van Gogh Europe 2015 said their aim was to promote the forgotten sites, to focus attention on the fact that many sites linked to van Gogh were still in need of preservation.为了复制这些强大的典范,与2015欧洲梵高年有关的官员称,他们打算大力宣传这些被遗忘的角落,让人们了解到许多与梵高有关的遗迹还需要保护。“There’s a huge amount of interest worldwide in van Gogh’s paintings, and there’s a great audience for his work in museums,” Frank van den Eijnden, chairman of the Van Gogh Europe Foundation, said in a phone interview. “But generally there is less money for restoration and preservation of van Gogh heritage, mainly the local heritage sites that you can find in France, Belgium and the Netherlands. We needed more attention for all the organizations involved, and especially from the governments that were linked to these locations. We really want van Gogh heritage to be a world heritage in the coming years.”“世界各地的人们对梵高的画作都有着强烈的兴趣,他在物馆的作品有庞大的拥趸,”梵高欧洲基金会主席弗兰克·范登艾金登(Frank van den Eijnden)在电话采访中说。“但总体来说,用于恢复和保护梵高遗产的资金却不多,主要包括在法国、比利时和荷兰的遗产。我们需要为相关机构赢得更多关注,尤其是来自政府机构的关注。我们真心希望梵高的遗产在未来几年成为世界性的遗产。”Mostly, in places where van Gogh lived, there are a number of plaques featuring van Gogh images or words from his letters, in sometimes inscrutable locations. In St.-Rémy-de-Provence, for example, there is a plaque that shows his “Green Wheat Field With Cypress” posted in front of the white stucco wall of a private home. 在梵高居住过的地方,往往会看到梵高的照片或用梵高信件中的文字制作的牌匾,有些会出现在不可思议的位置。例如,在普罗旺斯的圣雷米,一户私人住宅的白色灰泥墙前就有一块牌匾,上面印着他的《麦田里的丝柏树》。I wasn’t a van Gogh fan when I embarked on this journey. I moved to the Netherlands nine years ago to do research for a novel on Rembrandt, and my passion lies more in the Dutch old masters. My trouble with van Gogh’s work was that, to me, it had the familiarity of cereal boxes — or, as Andy Warhol might have it, soup cans — copied and reproduced to the point of unseeability. Even when I was standing among the originals, the freshness of his work evaded me. Also, I was weary of what seemed like a triteness in van Gogh’s biography, the tortured-genius-who-never-sold-a-painting-in-his-life.踏上这次旅程时,我并不是梵高的仰慕者。九年前,我为了给一本关于伦勃朗的小说做研究搬到了荷兰,我更偏爱荷兰的早期绘画大师。对我来说,梵高作品的问题在于,它熟悉得就像是麦片包装盒——安迪·沃霍尔可能会说像汤罐头——如此频繁地遭到模仿和复制,到了让人无感的程度。即使站在真迹面前,我也感受不到新鲜。此外,我也厌倦了梵高传记的陈词滥调,它们无一例外地把他描述成“一生中从未卖出一幅画的饱受折磨的天才”。I often write about van Gogh, because I’m an American art journalist based in Amsterdam, where tourists flock by the millions to the largest trove of his paintings anywhere in the world, the Van Gogh Museum, at the center of Amsterdam’s sprawling Museumplein (museum square).我经常写梵高的故事,因为我是驻阿姆斯特丹的美国艺术记者,而每年会有大量游客来到全世界最大的梵高作品收藏地——梵高物馆,它就位于阿姆斯特丹庞大的物馆广场的中央。But when I learned that van Gogh once sat down in front of one of Rembrandt’s most famous works, “The Jewish Bride,” in the Rijksmuseum (also on Museumplein, next to the Van Gogh Museum) and confided to a friend, “I should be happy to give 10 years of my life if I could go on sitting here in front of this picture for two weeks, with only a crust of dry b for food,” I began to think about van Gogh and his creative process. That painting, to which Rembrandt applied yellow paint in such thick impasto that it lifts right out into three-dimensionality, was the link for me into the world of van Gogh.然而当我了解到,梵高曾经坐在阿姆斯特丹国家物馆(也在物馆广场,梵高物馆旁边)里面伦勃朗最著名的画作《犹太新娘》前对一个朋友说,“如果我可以在这幅画前坐上两周,我宁愿少活10年,哪怕只吃干面包充饥都行,”我开始思考梵高和他的创作过程。伦勃朗利用厚重的黄色油塑造出立体形象的这幅画,让我走进了梵高的世界。So, that is what brought me, in the heat of July, to the busy intersection in Arles, to see if, in a place that he once inhabited, I could find traces of van Gogh’s soul. But there was no more Yellow House. It was demolished in the 1940s in World War II, I would find out later. In front of me was a white plaque affixed to a pole that stood on the sidewalk, with an image of van Gogh’s painting, all shades of golden hay, fresh butter and sunlight, under a stippled blue sky. There was that impasto yellow again, straight out of Rembrandt’s palette. But no van Gogh.因此,在7月的炎热天气里,我来到了阿尔勒这个繁忙的交叉路口,想看看在他曾经住过的地方,我是否能找到梵高灵魂的踪迹。但是黄房子已经不在,后来我才知道,它于上世纪40年代在“二战”中被摧毁。我面前是一块白色的牌匾,固定在人行道的柱子上,图片上是梵高的画作:各种色调的金黄干草,新鲜的奶油和阳光,在点手法绘出的蓝色天空之下。画上又见浓墨重的黄色,如同脱胎于伦勃朗的调色盘。但那不是梵高。Disappointed, I got back in my car and decided to try to find another van Gogh location on my list: Langlois Bridge, a drawbridge on the outskirts of Arles, which he depicted nine times in 1888. I knew it was still there because it’s now called Pont Van-Gogh.大失所望的我回到车里,决定寻找我的单子上另一个与梵高有关的地点:阿尔勒郊外的朗格鲁瓦吊桥,他在1888年画这座桥画了九次。我知道它仍在那里,因为它现在叫做梵高桥。The Borinage, Belgium比利时里纳日I began my journey not in van Gogh’s birthplace, but in the location where van Gogh the artist came to life: in the gritty, drab eastern coal-mining region of Belgium called the Borinage, where van Gogh at age 25 went to minister to the destitute, soot-blackened workers of the coal pits. Because this is where he was rejected from the priesthood and began his artistic career, the city of Mons has declared this the “birthplace of the artist,” with a host of events and an exhibition of his early work at the Museum of Fine Arts, in Mons, which ended in May. (Van Gogh’s birthplace was in Zundert, the Netherlands.)我此行的起点不是梵高的出生地,而是梵高作为画家的诞生地:在比利时东部破旧乏味的煤矿区里纳日,25岁的梵高曾在这里向煤矿里贫穷、被煤灰熏得漆黑的工人布道。因为他就是在这里被剥夺了传道士的身份,开始了艺术家的生涯,蒙斯城已经宣布这里是“这位艺术家的诞生地”。蒙斯的美术馆举办了大量活动和早期作品展,这些活动已经于5月结束(梵高的出生地是荷兰的津德尔特)。Van Gogh lived in a few locations in Mons; but he found himself ashamed to be living so well while the people to whom he ministered lived in overcrowded huts, and so he jettisoned his middle-class possessions and moved into smaller and simpler homes. He had started out in a large home up the hill from the local mine, in a red brick house he rented from a landlord named Jean-Baptiste Denis.梵高在蒙斯的几个地方居住过,但是他发现自己羞耻于自己过着优越的生活,听他传道的人们却只能生活在拥挤棚屋里,所以他放弃了中产阶级的财产,搬到了更小更简陋的房子里。他开始时租住在山上的一所大红砖房子里,房东名叫让-巴蒂斯特·丹尼斯(Jean-Baptiste Denis)。Everyone I spoke to told me that Maison Denis was only about a 15-minute drive outside Mons, but it took me an hour of driving in circles. It’s not on any map and I got there by chance: I asked directions from a man who happened to be a private van Gogh tour guide in the area. Finally, there it was: At the bitter end of a seemingly endless stretch of ramshackle rowhouses at 221, rue Wilson was a square red brick house with a red tile roof, only a bit larger than the houses that surrounded it.人们都告诉我,这栋房子位于蒙斯城外,相距只有15分钟左右车程,但我花了一小时才找到。地图上没有这个地方,我能找到全凭运气:我向一名男子问路,而他刚好是该地区的一名私人梵高路线导游。最后,我终于看到了它,在威尔森街221号的一排似乎没有尽头的破破烂烂的房屋的最远端,有一栋方方正正的红砖房子,屋顶铺着红瓦,比周围的房屋稍大一点。The home was one of the sites that Mr. van den Eijnden of the Van Gogh Europe Foundation had told me was nearly dilapidated, but thanks to fund-raising by a local foundation for Van Gogh Year, renovation of the house was underway. The house was still shuttered and there was a large fence around the property, but I walked to the edge of the backyard, where it bordered a grassy field blanketed in wildflowers that followed all the way down the hill to where I could see the colliery of the Marcasse mine, now closed. The refurbished house has since opened as Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine, and can be visited on weekends from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. 梵高欧洲基金会的范登艾金登告诉我,许多与梵高有关的宅子都已经倾圮,这座房屋是其中之一,多亏了当地的一家基金会为梵高年进行的筹资,这栋房屋的翻新正在进行当中。房屋仍然关闭,外面围着巨大的栅栏,我走到了后院的边上,它毗邻的草地上开满野花,从山下一直开到我能看到马卡斯煤矿的地方。这座煤矿现在已经关闭。房屋经过修缮目前已经重新开放,叫做“科尔方丹的梵高故居”(Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine),周末上午10点到下午6点可供参观。The attraction’s previously poor state was in sharp contrast to the other landmark van Gogh home in the Borinage, in the village of Cuesmes, Maison Van Gogh, a quaint cottage on a plot of grass at the end of a gravel road where van Gogh lived in 1879 and 1880. This was the location where he regrouped after he was told to abandon his ministry because he had disgraced the church, and where he wrote a letter to his brother, Theo, telling him he would like to try his hand at art. “Try to understand the last word of what the great artists, the serious masters, say in their masterpieces; there will be God in it,” he wrote. “Someone has written or said it in a book, someone in a painting.”这个景点之前的破败景象,与另一处位于尔纳日奎姆村的梵高故居形成了鲜明对比。这所别致的小房子位于一条砂砾路尽头的草地上,梵高1879年和1880年曾在此居住。正是在这里,他因为令教廷蒙羞被要求放弃传教士的工作,他写信给弟弟提奥,跟他说自己想要尝试画画。“试着理解伟大的艺术家、严肃的大师在作品中表达的最后一句话;那里面会有上帝,”他写道。“有人在书里写作或表达,有人在画中。”Inside this tourist site (which has an admission fee of 4 euros, or about .25 at .06 to the euro) I was one of only a few visitors, and watched a short biographical , looked at some of van Gogh’s early, clumsy sketches displayed in a glass vitrine and spent a few minutes among his spartan furnishings — a small wooden writing table, a chair and a wood-burning stove.在这处故居中(门票4欧元,即大约4.25美元),我是为数不多的参观者之一,我观看了一部梵高的传记短片,欣赏了玻璃橱窗里展示的一些粗糙的早期素描,花了几分钟看了看他简朴的家具——一张小木书桌,一把椅子,一个燃烧着木头的壁炉。Nuenen, the Netherlands荷兰纽南After he had resolved to devote himself to art, van Gogh moved back to the Netherlands, to live with his parents for two years in the town of Nuenen, where his father was the local minister. This town is proud of its legacy as the place where the itinerant artist remained for the longest stretch of his adult life, and where he painted “The Potato Eaters,” which is now known as his early masterpiece.决心投身绘画之后,梵高搬回了荷兰,与在纽南的父母生活了两年。他的父亲是当地的一名牧师。令这座小城自豪的是,这位四处漂泊的艺术家成年期间在这里居住了最长时间,而且这里也是《吃马铃薯的人》的创作地。这幅画目前被认为是梵高的早期杰作之一。Nuenen has turned the former town hall into the Vincentre, with a museum largely devoted to van Gogh’s family relationships, a cafe and a gift shop. The center is at the heart of Van Gogh Village Neunen, and the starting point of an outdoor museum, a 22-point walking or biking tour that takes you to some lovely locations where van Gogh painted, and to the Starry Night bike path that lights up with swirls of twinkling stones after dark.纽南已经把从前的市政厅变成了文森特中心(Vincentre),包括一座基本上完全用来展示梵高家庭关系的物馆,一家咖啡馆和一家礼品商店。这个中心是纽南梵高村的核心,也是一个户外物馆的起点,可以步行或骑自行车游览22处景点,包括梵高画过的一些美景,《星夜》自行车道上的石头在天黑之后呈现出螺旋形的灯光。It is also directly across the street from van Gogh’s family home, a two-story brick house, now a private residence that one can’t visit. Next to it is the home of Margot Begemann, the girl next door, who fell in love with the artist and tried to poison herself with strychnine when her family objected to the affair. Her family home, called Nune Ville, which came on the market recently by chance, has become a focus of efforts by local historic preservationists who would like to turn it too into a van Gogh heritage site.马路对面正好是梵高父母的家,一栋两层的砖房,现在是一处私人住宅,无法参观。它旁边是玛高特·贝格曼(Margot Begemann)的家,这个隔壁女孩爱上了梵高,当她的家庭阻止他们的恋情之后,她曾试图用番木鳖碱自杀。她家的房子名叫 “Nune Ville”,已经成为当地历史保护专家的重点保护对象,他们也想把它打造成一处梵高的遗产。Over last summer, when I visited, most of the rooms of the stately home were given over to contemporary artists who had created room-size installations inspired by van Gogh, in an exhibition called “The Vincent Affair,” which ended in October. Since then, attempts to find investors who could help turn the site into a permanent tourist spot have stalled, Mr. van den Eijnden said.去年夏天,我来参观的时候,这个庄重住宅的多数房间都被当代艺术家占据,他们受到梵高的启发,创作了一些房间大小的艺术装置,展览的名字叫“文森特集市”(The Vincent Affair),10月份结束。范登艾金登说,此后,寻找投资者把这里变成长期旅游景点的努力陷入停滞。Montmartre, Paris巴黎蒙马特Van Gogh didn’t stay in Nuenen long after the end of the Margot Begemann affair. He moved first to Antwerp, Belgium, and then to Paris, where his brother Theo had a job as an art dealer with the leading art gallery, Goupil amp; Cie. Van Gogh moved into his brother’s third-floor apartment at 54, rue Lepic in Montmartre, which is a private residence now, and designated only by a marble plaque: “Dans cette maison Vincent van Gogh a vécu chez son frère Théo de 1886 à 1888.” (“In this house Vincent van Gogh lived at his brother Théo’s place from 1886 to 1888.”) And some plastic sunflowers dangle from the window grate.在与玛高特·贝格曼的爱情告终之后,梵高没有在纽南待太长时间。他搬到了比利时的安特卫普,然后又搬到了巴黎。他的兄弟提奥在巴黎顶尖的画廊Coupilamp;Cie做艺术品交易的工作。梵高搬到了弟弟位于勒皮克大街54号三楼的公寓。这里现在是一处私人住宅,只有一块大理石板上写着,“1886年到1888年,文森特·梵高来到这栋房子与弟弟提奥同住。”窗户的格栏上挂着几朵塑料向日葵。The Rue Lepic arcs upward through Montmartre, passing the old windmills, and ultimately arrives at the Sacré-Coeur. On the way up, one can discover many prime landmarks of the nearly two years that van Gogh spent here, including the apartment of his friend Henri Toulouse-Lautrec and the oldest surviving Parisian vineyard, where van Gogh sometimes painted, now on Rue Saint Vincent.勒皮克大街向北蜿蜒穿过蒙马特,经过一些老风车,最终抵达圣心圣殿。在路上可以发现梵高在这度过的两年留下的许多足迹,包括他的友人亨利·图卢兹-罗特列克(Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec)的公寓,以及现在位于圣文森特街的最古老的巴黎葡萄园,梵高有时会在这里画画。The area, which was a hamlet outside Paris when van Gogh lived there, was critical to his progress as a painter, because it is where he met many of the Impressionists and other artists, including his friend Paul Gauguin, and imitated and explored various Parisian painting styles. There are no physical landmarks one can enter and explore in Montmartre to get a sense of how he lived, though there are museums, like the Musée d’Orsay, that now contain his work.梵高在那里居住时,这片地区是巴黎城外的一个小村子。这里对于他作为画家的成长至关重要,因为他遇见了许多印象主义和其他流派的画家,包括好友保罗·高更,模仿并探索了巴黎的各种绘画风格。在蒙马特没有一个有形的场所可以让你走进去探索并感受梵高当时的生活,但是有些物馆收藏了他的作品,比如奥赛物馆。Provence, France法国普罗旺斯Finding original artworks by van Gogh in most of the locations I visited would have been nearly impossible except for the special exhibitions designed for Van Gogh Year. The Fondation Van Gogh in Arles, an expansive exhibition space topped with an artwork of colored glass refracting Proven light through its roof, which opened in 2014, is a notable exception. Through an agreement with the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, the foundation will have one original van Gogh painting on display year-round.在我参观的多数地方,想找到梵高的真迹几乎都是不可能的,除非是在专门为梵高年举办的展览上。阿尔勒的梵高基金会(Fondation Van Gogh in Arles)是一个宽敞的展览空间,顶棚是色玻璃的艺术设计,可以让普罗旺斯的阳光折射进来。这处2014年开设的场所是一个例外。凭借与阿姆斯特丹的梵高物馆的一份协议,基金会全年都会展示一幅梵高的真迹。The final stages of van Gogh’s life are the best preserved, and they are also the most moving. After he cut off a part of his ear in Arles, he was admitted to the Arles hospital in Provence, where he painted the lush gardens that are still on display free to the public, as Espace Van Gogh. When he found that this was not sufficient treatment, his brother secured a spot for him at the asylum in St.-Rémy-de-Provence, about 30 minutes to the north. The drive there took me past the endless stretches of sunflowers now so closely associated with his art, and through the foothills of the range of small mountains at the base of the Alps, called the Alpilles, where he painted a series of “Wheat Fields” and his most famous “Starry Night.”梵高人生最后几个阶段的故居保存最完好,也最打动人。他在阿尔勒切掉了一片耳朵之后,被送到了普罗旺斯的阿尔勒医院,他在那里画下的郁郁葱葱的花园目前仍然免费展示给公众,这家医院目前叫做梵高医院。当他发现这里不能提供足够的治疗时,他的弟弟在北部30分钟路程的普罗旺斯的圣雷米的精神病院为他安排了一个床位。开车前往这家精神病院的途中,我路过了一片片绵延不断的向日葵,以及阿尔卑斯山脚下的山麓丘陵,叫做阿尔皮勒,梵高在这里画下了《麦田》系列和最著名的《星夜》。The municipality of St. Rémy has done van Gogh tourists a service by creating a 19-point walking tour from the city center called Promenade de van Gogh, which can be complemented with an app called Van Gogh Natures that adds information about paintings he made in and around the asylum. I followed this self-guided tour up the hill, finding myself softly whispering: “Vincent, where are you? Are you here?” I realized, for the first time on my journey, that I had come in search of a ghost.圣雷米市为梵高的游客提供了一个从市中心出发的包含19个景点的徒步旅行路线,叫做梵高人行道,游客还可以下载Van Gogh Natures的应用程序,获取关于他在精神病院和周围创作的画作的信息。我按图索骥来到了山上,突然发现自己在轻声低语:“文森特,你在哪呢?你在这儿吗?”我在旅行中第一次意识到,我是在寻找一个灵魂。The destination was the St. Paul de Mausole, a Romanesque former religious cloister that is part of a still-functioning mental hospital, and its sumptuous surrounding gardens. Depending on the season when you visit, you can find all the beautiful irises and lilies that inspired van Gogh’s paintings. And around the asylum are the twisted olive groves and the tall elegant cypresses that he captured with dense, emotional brushwork.终点是莫索尔的圣保罗修道院(Saint Paul de Mausole)和它周围华丽的花园。这里曾经是一个罗曼式建筑风格的修道院,目前属于一所精神病院。在适当的季节,你可以看到为梵高绘画带去灵感的美丽的鸢尾花和百合。精神病院周围是扭曲的橄榄树,以及他曾经用浓烈而情绪化的笔触描绘过的高耸而优雅的丝柏树。Inside the cool cloister, through its medieval stone halls and up the shallow Romanesque stairs, is van Gogh’s preserved former room at the asylum. The steel bars on the windows are a jarring counterpoint to the easel positioned next to his wrought-iron bed, but what is more shocking is the room next door with two steel baths used for administering “hydrotherapy treatments” — only a hint of the therapeutic tortures he might have endured here. I wandered through the gardens for a moment of calm after seeing the hospital cell, my mind raging with thoughts of van Gogh’s suffering, and wondering how he managed to paint at all during the time he was at the asylum — let alone make 143 oil paintings and 100 drawings.在修道院内,穿过中世纪的石头大厅和浅浅的罗曼式的楼梯,就来到了梵高在精神病院住过的房间。窗户上的钢铁栅栏和他铁床边的画架形成了强烈的反差,但更加令人震惊的是,隔壁的房间有两个用于“水疗护理”的钢铁浴盆——这只会让人联想到他可能遭受的折磨。在参观完了病房之后,我在花园中游荡,寻找片刻宁静,满脑子都在想梵高的痛苦,我好奇他在精神病院里是怎么画画的——更不用说他还创作了143幅油画和100幅素描。Auvers-sur-Oise, France法国瓦兹河畔欧韦Van Gogh’s troubles did not end, though he finally left the St. Rémy hospital. He made his way back to northern France, to the town of Auvers-sur-Oise, about a 30-minute drive from Paris. It is where I visited the most poignant landmark, Van Gogh’s Room in the historic inn Auberge Ravoux. This tiny second-floor room (even smaller than his room at the asylum) remained empty for years after van Gogh died, suffering the curse of any French hotel room that was thought to be the scene of a suicide, and has been restored entirely through the efforts of a citizen, Dominique-Charles Janssens. This room, where van Gogh completed more than 80 paintings in just 70 days, with its only access to natural light a small ceiling window, is reminiscent of a coffin. Here is where van Gogh died of a fatal gunshot wound — probably self-inflicted — with his brother at his side.虽然梵高最终离开了圣雷米精神病院,他的不幸没有结束。他回到了法国北部的瓦兹河畔欧韦镇,这里距离巴黎有30分钟车程。我在那里参观了最令人印象深刻的地标,梵高在历史悠久的拉乌餐厅旅馆(Auberge Ravoux)的房间。因为被认为是自杀的不祥之地,这个二楼的小房间(比他在精神病院的房间还小)在梵高去世之后空了很多年,通过一位名叫多米尼克 - 查尔斯詹森的公民的努力得到了完全的修复。在这个房间里,梵高用了仅仅70天的时间完成了超过80幅画作,屋子里只能通过天花板上的小窗获得一些自然光,感觉就像一口棺材。梵高在这里死于致命伤——可能是自己开的——弟弟当时就在他身边。And in close walking distance is his grave, alongside his brother and confidante, Theo, who died six months later, at age 33.他的坟墓就在附近,葬在他身边的是弟弟兼好友提奥。提奥在梵高去世的六个月后去世,终年33岁。What is more compelling, however, was a short walk away from his grave: the wheat fields down the dusty road where he painted his final series of canvases.不过,从他的坟墓走不了多远,有更为值得一看的地方:沿着尘土飞扬的路走下去,是一片麦田,梵高在这里创作了他最后系列的油画作品。By the end, the trip became something of a pilgrimage. I had gone to where van Gogh trekked alone with his easel on his back, gazing at the crooked olive groves, the obelisk-like cypresses and the swirling starry nights.到了最后,这趟旅程已经有了几分朝圣的味道。我来到了梵高背着画板独自远行,以及他凝视着歪橄榄树、方尖碑样的丝柏树和令人眩晕的星夜的地方。When I tramped down a dirt road along a river in Arles to the Pont de Langlois, which van Gogh depicted in four drawings, one watercolor and four oil paintings, I wondered: Why, when living in the center of a city like Arles, dotted with beautiful Roman ruins that filtered evening light in dramatic and wonderful ways, he was instead attracted, over and over again, to this slightly old-fashioned little drawbridge miles outside of town. And, having come all the way from Amsterdam, through so many van Gogh locations, I realized that I knew. Although van Gogh traveled far to discover the right effects, the right light and the right subjects for his paintings, all the while he was longing for a sense of home.当我踏着阿尔勒一条河边的泥土路,来到梵高在四幅素描、一幅水和四幅油画中描绘过的朗格鲁瓦吊桥,我在想:梵高住在阿尔勒这样一座城市的市中心,周围散落着美丽的罗曼式旧建筑遗迹,以奇妙和梦幻的方式照进夜晚的灯光,为何他还一次次地执迷于城外几里地远的这座有点过时的小吊桥?从阿姆斯特丹千里迢迢来到这里,造访了那么多梵高的故居之后,我意识到,我知道。尽管梵高为了寻找恰当的效果、光线和绘画对象而远走他乡,但他一直都渴望家的感觉。The more I traveled the more I became fascinated by this man van Gogh, who transmuted the reality of things he saw into images that are more real than real. The landmarks provided me with a starting point, from which I could travel out, and get a sense of the distances he traveled, both physically and mentally, to achieve the remarkable heights of artistic creation in the short span of a 10-year career.走的地方越多,我对梵高就愈加着迷。他把眼中的世界幻化了比真实更加真实的画面。这些地标是我的起点,我可以继续远行,去感受梵高在短短10年绘画生涯中要达到如此惊人艺术创作高度,其肉体和心灵所走过的距离。IF YOU GO参观建议In the Netherlands荷兰Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam (Museumplein 6; 31-20-570-5200; Vangoghmuseum.nl) is the world’s largest trove of artworks by van Gogh. It is in the heart of Amsterdam, with a permanent exhibition of his work as well as temporary exhibitions that relate his works to other great artists.阿姆斯特丹的梵高物馆(Museumplein 6; 31-20-570-5200;vangoghmuseum.nl)是世界上最大的梵高作品收藏中心。它位于阿姆斯特丹的中心位置,长期展出他的作品,以及与其作品有关的当代展览。Vincentre / Van Gogh Village Nuenen(Vincentre Berg 29, Nuenen; 31-40-283-9615; for biking and walking tours, April through October), a small museum, is the beginning of an open-air walking tour that takes you through important locations for van Gogh’s painting in Nuenen, where he lived with his parents for two years, and fell in love with Margot Begemann. (Above, van Gogh’s father’s Reformed Church in Nuenen.)文森特中心/纽南梵高村(Vincentre Berg 29, Nuenen; 31-40-283-9615; 4月到10月,自行车和徒步旅游路线),一家小型物馆,你可以从这里开始一次露天的徒步之旅,途径梵高画作中在纽南的重要景点。梵高在纽南与父母居住两年,并在这里爱上了玛高特·贝格曼。Van Gogh Starry Night Bike Path(vangoghvillagenuenen.nl/het-vincentre.aspx), which lights up at night, begins at the Opwettense watermill in Nuenen and ends at the Collse Watermill in Eindhoven.梵高星夜自行车道(vangoghvillagenuenen.nl/het-vincentre.aspx),道路在夜晚会发光,起点是纽南的Opwettense 水车,终点是埃因霍温的Collse水车。Van Gogh House in Zundert(Markt 27, Zundert; 31-76-597-19 99; vangoghhuis.com), where van Gogh was born, was torn down in 1903, but the new house was built in 2008 with a permanent exhibition about his birthplace, Zundert.津德尔特的梵高故居(Markt 27, Zundert; 31-76-597-19 99;vangoghhuis.com),梵高出生的地方,1903年被拆除,2008年重建,长期举办关于梵高的展览。In Belgium比利时The Borinage: Maison Van Gogh (Rue du Pavillon 3, Cuesmes; en.maisonvangogh.mons.be), just outside of Mons, in bucolic Cuesmes, is a little brick house and museum that tells the story of van Gogh’s time in this part of Belgium. (Above, inside Maison Van Gogh in Cuesmes, the Borinage.)里纳日:梵高故居(Rue du Pavillon 3, Cuesmes;en.maisonvangogh.mons.be),一栋小砖房,如今是一座物馆,讲述着梵高在比利时这个地区度过的时光。Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine(Rue Wilson 221, formerly rue du Petit-Wasmes, Colfontaine; mons2015.eu/en/maison-van-gogh-colfontaine), also known as Maison Denis, the newly renovated house van Gogh rented when he arrived in Mons to be an evangelist, is near the Marcasse Mine.科尔方丹的梵高故居(Rue Wilson 221, formerly rue du Petit-Wasmes, Colfontaine; mons2015.eu/en/maison-van-gogh-colfontaine),也被称作丹尼斯的房子,这是梵高抵达蒙斯担任福音传道者时租住的房子,目前已经被翻修,位于马卡斯煤矿附近。BAM/Musée des Beaux-Arts in Mons(Rue Neuve, 8, Mons; 32-65-39-5939; www.bam.mons.be/) had an exhibition dedicated to van Gogh in the Borinage in 2015, but that show is now over. But exhibitions are often linked to the painter, who had a tremendous influence in Mons.蒙斯美术馆(Rue Neuve, 8, Mons; 32-65-39-5939; www.bam.mons.be/)2015年举办了一个关于梵高在里纳日的展览,目前已经结束。但这里的展览经常与梵高有关,梵高对蒙斯产生了深远的影响。In France法国Fondation Vincent Van Gogh in Arles(35 rue du Dr. Fanton; Arles; fondation-vincentvangogh-arles.org/), in the center of the old city of Arles, is a great place to begin a tour of van Gogh locations throughout Arles. Exhibitions are connected to van Gogh’s work; and at least one original van Gogh painting is on display in the museum all year round.阿尔勒的文森特·梵高基金会(35 rue du Dr. Fanton; Arles; fondation-vincentvangogh-arles.org/),位于阿尔勒老城的中心,从这里开始在阿尔勒寻访梵高的足迹再合适不过了。这里的展览都与梵高的作品有关,全年至少有一幅梵高的真迹在物馆展出。St. Paul de Mausole Monastery(Chemin St. Paul, 13210 St.-Rémy-de-Provence; 33-4-90-92-77-00) is the “asylum” where van Gogh received treatment in St.-Rémy-de-Provence, and where you can visit his former room and see the lush gardens and landscapes he painted during his time there. Different flowers are in bloom throughout the year; check for seasons for irises, almond blossoms and sunflowers.莫索尔的圣保罗修道院 (Chemin St. Paul, 13210 St.-Rémy-de-Provence; 33-4-90-92-77-00)是梵高在普罗旺斯的圣雷米接受治疗的“精神病院”,你可以在这里参观他当时的病房,看到他在此治疗期间画过的茂盛的花园和风景。全年都有不同的花儿绽放;在适当的季节可以看到鸢尾花、杏花和向日葵。Maison de Van Gogh(Place de la Mairie, Auvers-sur-Oise; 33-1-30-36-60-60), the restaurant and inn Auberge Ravoux, the last place where van Gogh lived, and where he died. You can see the tiny room he inhabited, and eat a classic French meal at the lovely restaurant downstairs.梵高故居(Place de la Mairie, Auvers-sur-Oise; 33-1-30-36-60-60),拉乌餐厅旅馆,梵高居住过的最后一个地方,他也在这里走完了人生。你可以看见他居住的小房间,在楼下的迷人的餐厅享受一顿传统的法餐。 /201602/426533

  The 2015 state science and technology awards honoring the contributions of 295 research projects and seven foreign experts were bestowed at a ceremony in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on Friday, but the highest award remained vacant.周五,在北京人民大会堂,国家主席习近平颁发了国家科学技术奖,共有295个科研项目和7个国外专家获此殊荣。The state science and technology awards comprise five award categories, of which the Preeminent Science and Technology Award is the highest.国家科学技术奖包括五大类,其中最高奖项是最高科技奖。The top prize has previously been awarded to 25 scientists, including China#39;s ;father of hybrid rice; Yuan Longping, since it was established in 2000. There were one or two winners each year except 2004, the first time there was no recipient.自2000年设立此奖项以来,先后共有25名科学家获得最高科技奖的殊荣,其中包括“杂交水稻之父”袁隆平先生。每年都会有一两名科学家获得最高奖项,然而备受关注的国家最高科学技术奖继2004年之后,再一次出现空缺。;We can only express regret over the vacancy this year,; an unidentified official from the National Office for Science and Technology Awards, which is in charge of collecting nominations and organizing the voting, was ed by People#39;s Daily as saying.“最高奖项空缺,我们只能表示很惋惜。”国家科学技术办公室中负责收集获奖提名和投票的一名行政官员告诉中国日报。The official said that the country#39;s first Nobel laureate in medicine, Tu Youyou, who won the 2015 Nobel Prize for Medicine in October, was not nominated for this year#39;s prize. The nominations, submitted by more than 130 government agencies, research institutes and individual scientists, were made from early November to mid-December 2014.这名行政人员说道,2015年10月份屠呦呦获得诺贝尔医学奖,然而屠呦呦在国家科学技术奖中并没有被提名。国家科学技术奖提名由130个国家机构,科研机构和科学家个人提名。整个提名过程从11月初一直延续到12月中旬。In other award categories, this year saw a trend in which the average age of principal winners of the State Natural Sciences Award was just 47.6.其他科学技术奖项中,今年我们看到了获奖得主年轻化的这一趋势,平均年龄只有47.6岁。 /201601/421233

  Head of the European Space Agency, Johann-Dietrich Woerner has revealed ideas for an international #39;Moon Village#39; that combines the capabilities of space-faring nations around the world.欧洲航天局的负责人约翰·迪特里希·韦尔纳近日公布了国际“月球村”的想法,这个计划将联合全世界航天水平先进的国家的力量。This settlement - which could be available by 2030 - would be built using natural resources from the lunar surface to create a permanent base for the purpose of science, business, and even tourism.这个开拓地--有可能在2030年前可供使用--将利用来自月球表面的自然资源进行建设,为科学、商业甚至是旅游业提供永久性的基地。Woerner describes the proposed Moon Village in a recent released by the Esa.韦尔纳在欧洲航天局最近发布的一段视频中描述了这个提议中的“月球村”。The expert recommends settlement at the poles or in areas of constant daylight on the far side of the moon. At the South Pole, in a region of continuous darkness, humans could access water to produce hydrogen and oxygen.这位专家建议将“月球村”建设在月球两极,或建设在月球远端能够长期暴露于日光下的区域。月球南极是一个持续黑暗的区域,在这里,人类能够接触到水,以生产氢和氧。And in the shadow of the moon, he explains, settlers would be protected from incoming cosmic and solar radiation.他解释称,在月球的阴影里,开拓者们将免于受到宇宙和太阳辐射的伤害。The Moon Village idea aims to be a versatile facility that opens the door for deeper space exploration, while also acting as a hub for business or mining. And, the expert says it could be used recreationally for tourists.“月球村”的目的是建立一个多种用途的设施,为进行更深入的太空探索创造条件,同时还能用作一个商业或采矿的中心。此外,这位专家称,这里可以被用作游客们的游憩场所。While many nations – in particular the US – have their sights set on the journey to Mars, Woerner says a Moon Village is a closer reality. The ESA Director General says the Moon Village would join American, Russian, Chinese, Indian, and Japanese space agencies, along with smaller contributions from other countries.虽然很多国家--尤其是美国--把目标定在火星之旅上,但韦尔纳称,“月球村”是一种更加贴近现实的做法。这位欧洲航天局负责人称,“月球村”将联合美国、俄罗斯、中国、印度和日本的航空机构,其他一些国家也将贡献自己的微薄之力。 /201603/433918。

  How shapes can predict your tolerance of ‘deviancy’如何用形状来推测你的容忍度Here’s a simple question that can tell us an awful lot about you. Is this a circle?这是一个简单的问题,却可以让我们了解你很多信息。这是一个圆吗?If you said: “Yeah, sure, close enough,” then you are probably politically liberal, and strongly support the idea of government aid for the homeless and unemployed. You are also likely to support same-sex marriage and legalisation of marijuana for recreational use.如果你说:“是的,当然了,非常接近,”那么你很可能在政治上是个自由主义者,并且强烈持政府救助无家可归者以及失业者。你还很可能持同性恋婚姻以及大麻的消费立法。If you said: “No, of course not,” then you are probably politically conservative, and strongly support the idea of protecting the rights of business owners and having a strong military. You are likely to take a particularly dim view of illegal immigration, and would come down strongly on even relatively low-level crime, such as drug use and prostitution.如果你说:“不,当然不是了,”那么你很可能在政治上很保守,强烈持保护企业所有者的权利,并持拥有强大的军事实力。你很可能对于非法移民持有模糊的态度,并且强烈反对甚至相对低水平的犯罪,例如毒品和卖淫。Although this sounds like some sort of satire, these were – broadly speaking – the findings of a recent study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. People who are tolerant of deviance from the norm when judging a circle (or triangle, square, rectangle or ellipse) are tolerant of deviant or otherwise marginalised groups in society. In fact, they’re not just tolerant of these groups, they actively want to help them. So if you meet someone new and don’t know how to broach the subject of their political orientation, just show them a “circle”.总的来看,尽管这听起来像是嘲讽,这其实是发布在人格与社会心理学杂志上的一篇最新的研究。那些可以容忍一个圆(或三角形,方形,矩形或椭圆)偏离常态的人可以容忍不正常的人或者社会上边缘的人群。事实上,他们不仅可以容忍这些人群,他们还很积极地想要帮助他们。所以如果你遇到了不认识的人并且不知道如何确定他们的政治倾向,那就给他们看一个“圆”。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201602/425178

  #39;Smart#39; Bandage Extracts Bacteria From Wounds新创可贴可从伤口吸出细菌In 1920, Johnson and Johnson employee Earle Dickson created the first bandage to cover the frequent burns and cuts his wife Josephine inflicted on herself while cooking. The hand-made prototype was instantly adopted by his employer and marketed as Band-Aid, a brand that has become synonymous with the word bandage. However, while the adhesive strips may now look different from Dickson#39;s creation they still perform the same job - Prevent bacteria from entering wounds. However, that may soon be a thing of the past, thanks to a new gauze that not only acts as a barrier between external bacteria and the wound, but also, sucks out the ones aly present!1920年,为了把妻子Josephine做饭过程中反复弄伤的手包起来防止感染,Johnson和他的雇员Earle Dickson发明了世界上第一个创可贴。随后,这种最初手工制作的创可贴在员工中迅速传播,并被命名为“邦迪贴”——取用英文“绷带”一词的谐音,开始对外出售。虽然现在的创可贴花样繁多,但用途不变——始终用来防止细菌进入伤口。但是,这即将成为过去,最近新发明的一款创可贴,不仅能防止细菌进入伤口,还能把伤口中的细菌吸出来。The brilliant technology that is still in the early stages of development is being spearheaded by Martina Abirgo, a Ph.D. candidate at the Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. The team began by creating nanofibers using a technique called electrospinning. Used to build artificial tissue it entails pushing polymer out of an electrified nozzle to produce strands that are 100 times thinner than a single human hair. The nanofibers were then interwoven to create the smart bandage.这项由澳洲斯威本科技大学的士申请人Martina Abirgo发起的卓越的发明,尚处初始阶段。他们团队首先通过静电纺丝技术,制造出一种纳米纤维。这种纤维最初作人造纤维之用,可以把聚合物从电气化喷嘴中分离成比发丝还细100倍的线。这些纳米纤维缠绕在一起就形成了智能创可贴。Encouraged by the results, Martina and her team collaborated with scientists from the University of Sheffield in the ed Kingdom to conduct similar tests on artificial skin. Though the results are yet to be published, the scientists say that the mesh worked as effectively on the human manufactured living tissue. The smart bandage will now be tested on humans, and if all goes well, patients and doctors will soon be able to just peel away harmful bacteria using this ingenious bandage.受这个结果的鼓舞,Martina和她的团队与英国谢菲尔大学的科学家们一起,在人造皮肤上做了相同的测试。虽然测试结果尚未发布,科学家们已宣称这种材料在人造组织上效果良好。随后,智能创可贴将在人体测试,如果进展顺利,医生和病人们就能使用这种神奇的绷带,把有害细菌从人体分离。Though such a bandage would certainly be real cool for everyday playground scrapes and cuts, the technology is a lifesaver for people with compromised immunity levels. These include patients afflicted with diseases like diabetes and cancer. The researchers believe the technology could also be used to create protective clothing.这种创可贴针对日常的擦伤和刀伤非常好用,对那些不幸患上糖尿病和癌症的人等免疫缺失的人群来说,更是救命稻草。研究者还表示,这项技术也在防护衣的制作中也可以应用。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201511/412361


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