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来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 遵义绥阳县治疗咖啡斑价格度排名权威医院
When it came to pharmacological solutions to life#39;s despairs, Aldous Huxley was ahead of the curve. In Huxley#39;s 1932 novel about a dystopian future, the Alphas, Betas and others populating his ;Brave New World; have at their disposal a drug called soma. A little bit of it chases the blues away: ;A gramme; — Huxley was English, remember, spelling included — ;is better than a damn.; With a swallow, negative feelings are dispelled.说到以药物手段来医治生活中的绝望,奥尔德斯·赫胥黎(Aldous Huxley)可谓走在了时代的前面。在赫胥黎1932年的小说《美丽新世界》(Brave New World)中,生活在那个反乌托邦未来世界中的阿尔法、贝塔和其他种姓的人类手头常备一种名叫“苏麻”的万能灵药,只要一点点就可以驱散生活中的阴霾。“药胜过受煎熬。”只要吞下药丸,负面情绪也随之烟消云散。Prozac, the subject of this week#39;s documentary from Retro Report, is hardly soma. But its guiding spirit is not dissimilar: A few milligrams of this drug are preferable to the many damns that lie at the core of some people#39;s lives. Looking back at Prozac#39;s introduction by Eli Lilly and Company in 1988, and hopscotching to today, the documentary explores the enormous influence, both chemical and cultural, that Prozac and its brethren have had in treating depression, a concern that gained new resonance with the recent suicide of the comedian Robin Williams.本周(指9月22日那周)的;Retro Report;(以重新审视历史上的重大事件为主题的系列纪录片)的主题百忧解(Prozac)和“苏麻”当然不是一码事,但其宗旨却并无不同:对某些人而言,用几毫克这种药物总比应付生活中的大堆烦恼合算多了。继回顾了1988年美国礼来制药(Eli Lilly and Company)推出百忧解的经过之后,这部纪录片又将视角转回当下,从化学和文化的双重角度探讨了百忧解及其同类产品在抑郁症的治疗领域造成的巨大影响。由于喜剧演员罗宾·威廉姆斯(Robin Williams)不久前自杀,抑郁症又成为当今人们关注的热点。In the late 1980s and the 90s, Prozac was widely viewed as a miracle pill, a life preserver thrown to those who felt themselves drowning in the high waters of mental anguish. It was the star in a class of new pharmaceuticals known as S.S.R.I.s — selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Underlying their use is a belief that depression is caused by a shortage of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Pump up the levels of this brain chemical and, voilà, the mood lifts. Indeed, millions have embraced Prozac, and swear by it. Depression left them emotionally paralyzed, they say. Now, for the first time in years, they think clearly and can embrace life.在20世纪80年代末和90年代,人们普遍将百忧解看作是一种“神奇药丸”,是那些觉得自己快要没顶于精神痛苦中的人们眼里的救生圈。百忧解是一类名为选择性血清素再摄取抑制剂(SSRI)的新型药物中的明星产品。其作用基于的观念为,抑郁症是由一种名叫血清素的神经递质不足引起的。只要能提高这种脑化学物质的浓度,好啦,精神一下子就振奋起来了。事实上,已经有成百上千万人接受了百忧解,并对它的作用深信不疑。抑郁症导致他们情感麻痹,他们说。而今,他们终于可以清楚地思考并热情地拥抱生活了——多年来,这样的感觉还是第一次。Pharmacological merits aside, the green-and-cream pill was also a marvel of commercial branding, down to its market-tested name. Its chemical name is fluoxetine hydrochloride, not the most felicitous of terms. A company called Interbrand went to work for Eli Lilly and came up with Prozac. ;Pro; sounds positive. Professional, too. ;Ac;? That could signify action. As for the Z, it suggests a certain strength, perhaps with a faint high-techy quality.除去其药理学价值,这种半截绿色半截奶油色的胶囊丸也堪称商业品牌推广中的奇迹,而这尤其要感谢它经过市场考验的商品名。它的化学名称为盐酸氟西汀,这显然不够朗朗上口。一家名为Interbrand的公司为礼来出谋划策,想出了Prozac这个名字。;Pro;听起来就给人胸有成竹、十分专业(professional)的感觉。;Ac;呢,可以认为它表示“行动”(action)。至于Z,这个字母代表了某种力量,可能还有一点点高科技的感觉。(X is a pharmacological cousin to Z. Both letters are somewhat unusual, worth many points in Scrabble. It is surely not a coincidence that a striking number of modern medications contain either Z or X, or both, in their names, like Luvox, Paxil, Celexa, Effexor, Zantac, Xanax, Zoloft, Lexapro and Zocor, to name but a few. Not surprisingly, confusion can set in. Zantac or Xanax — remind me which one is for heartburn and which for panic disorder?)(在制药领域,X与Z的地位近似。这两个字母在取名这种拼字游戏中享有异乎寻常的地位和价值。绝大多数现代药物的商品名都包含Z或X,或两者兼而有之。随便举几个例子,Luvox[兰释,亦称无郁宁]、Paxil[百可舒]、Celexa[喜普妙]、Effexor[郁复伸]、Zantac[善胃得]、Xanax[赞安诺]、Zoloft[左洛复]、Lexapro[来士普]和Zocor[舒降之]等等。这肯定不是用巧合可以解释的。由此产生困扰也就不足为奇了。Zantac和Xanax,哪个能治胃灼热,哪个又是用以治疗惊恐障碍的?看名字可真分不清。)Pendulums, by definition, swing, and the one on which Prozac rides is no exception. After the early talk about it as a wonder pill — a rather chic one at that — a backlash developed, perhaps unsurprisingly. Grave questions arose among some psychiatrists about whether the S.S.R.I.s increased chances that some people, notably teenagers, would commit suicide or at least contemplate it. No definite link was confirmed, but that did not end the concern of some prominent skeptics, like a British psychiatrist, Dr. David Healy. He has dismissed the notion of S.S.R.I.s as saviors as ;bio-babble.;但凡事都是三十年河东三十年河西,百忧解也不例外。起初它被尊为灵丹妙药,还是种十分时髦的灵丹妙药,后来人们却又开始强烈地抵制它(或许这种反应不足为奇)。关于SSRI是否会增加某些人,特别是青少年的自杀事件或自杀倾向,精神科医生提出了严厉的质问。目前尚无研究实两者之间存在必然的关联,但是这并没有打消某些著名的怀疑论者的疑虑,英国的精神病学家戴维·希利士(David Healy)正是其中之一。他将那些把SSRI类药物当成救世主的说法贬斥为“生物噪音”。If some users deem Prozac lifesaving, others consider it sensory-depriving. A loss of libido is a common side effect. Some writers and artists, while often relieved to be liberated from depression#39;s tightest grip, also say that Prozac leaves them mentally hazy. In his 2012 book, ;Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder,; Nassim Nicholas Taleb offered this: ;Had Prozac been available last century, Baudelaire#39;s ‘spleen,#39; Edgar Allan Poe#39;s moods, the poetry of Sylvia Plath, the lamentations of so many other poets, everything with a soul would have been silenced.;有人觉得百忧解可以救命,其他使用者则认为它剥夺了人正常的生理感觉。百忧解的一个常见的副作用是丧失性欲。还有一些作家和艺术家声称,虽然百忧解将他们从抑郁症的魔爪之下解脱了出来,却也让他们精神恍惚。纳齐姆·尼古拉斯·塔利布(Nassim Nicholas Taleb)在他2012年的著作《反脆弱:从无序中受益》(;Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder;)中提出:“如果百忧解早在上个世纪就问世的话,那么波德莱尔(Baudelaire)的“忧郁”、埃德加·爱伦·坡(Edgar Allan Poe)的浪漫主义情怀、西尔维亚·普拉斯(Sylvia Plath)的诗歌、以及那么多其他诗人的哀叹,所有那些有灵魂的作品都将遭到扼杀。”Then, too, S.S.R.I. critics express doubts that these drugs have proved themselves significantly more effective than placebos. Some among them question the very concept that serotonin levels, on their own, cause depression or prevent it. One psychotherapist in that camp is Gary Greenberg, an author of several books on mood disorders. Writing in The New Yorker last year, Dr. Greenberg said that scientists had ;concluded that serotonin was only a finger pointing at one#39;s mood — that the causes of depression and the effects of the drugs were far more complex than the chemical-imbalance theory implied.;此外,SSRI的批判者们还怀疑这些药物的效果是否显著优于安慰剂。其中一些人质疑单凭血清素水平是否就足以导致或防止抑郁症。心理治疗师加里·格林伯格(Gary Greenberg)就属于这一阵营,他撰写过若干本关于情绪障碍的著作。在去年的《纽约客》(The New Yorker)上,格林伯格士写道:科学家们认为,“血清素只是影响个人情绪的一个因素,抑郁症的成因以及药物的效应远比化学失衡理论所描述的更加复杂。”;The ensuing research,; he continued, ;has mostly yielded more evidence that the brain, which has more neurons than the Milky Way has stars and is perhaps one of the most complex objects in the universe, is an elusive target for drugs.;“人的大脑中包含的神经元数量比系中的恒星还要多,”他继续写道,“而后续的研究得到的据大多表明,大脑是药物很难作用到的靶标。”More broadly, this retrospective on Prozac introduces a discussion of whether the medical establishment, and perhaps society in general, has gone too far in turning normal conditions, like sadness, into pathologies. And have we paved a path — shades of soma — toward wanton reliance on drugs to enhance life, not to conquer true illness?广而言之,这个关于百忧解的回顾性纪录片提出了这样一个论题:医疗机构,或者更宽泛一点来说,整个社会是否走得太过,以至于将普通的情感,如悲伤,也纳入了病态的范畴。我们是否正一步步地放任自己依赖药物,以增添生活乐趣——就像小说中的人们依赖“苏麻”一样——而放弃了征真正的疾病?This is what a prominent psychiatrist, Dr. Peter Kramer, has called ;cosmetic psychopharmacology,; a Botox approach, if you will, to matters of the mind: Why not take Prozac and its S.S.R.I. mates even if you are not clinically depressed but believe that they can boost your confidence, or maybe help you make a stronger pitch at the sales meeting?著名精神病学家彼得·克雷默(Peter Kramer)士将这种现象称为“美容式精神药理学”,就像是自愿给情绪问题打上一肉毒杆菌毒素一样:即使你并非临床抑郁症患者,只要你相信用百忧解及其SSRI同类可以提升你的自信心,或者能帮助你在推销会上语惊四座,那又何乐而不为呢?A response from others in Dr. Kramer#39;s field is that we are taking traits that are normal parts of human nature and casting them as diseases simply because remedies now exist. For instance, shyness is now regarded by some as a condition in need of treatment. In its more severe form, it is placed under the heading of social anxiety disorder. Then there are those much-heralded life enhancers, Viagra and its erection-aiding cousins. They are marketed not only to men with sexual dysfunction but also to those whose aging bodies are enduring normal wear and tear.克莱默士的同行中有人回应道,我们之所以将人性的正常组成部分当成疾病来对待,就是因为现在有了药。举例来说,今天有些人甚至将羞怯也归入了需要治疗的疾病,将其较为严重的形式纳入了社交焦虑症的范畴。此外,伟哥等促勃起药物也被当作能提升生活品质的东西而得到大肆炒作。在市场营销中,它们不仅被推销给需要治疗性功能障碍的男性,还被推荐给身体只是出现了正常衰老的普通人。One area of shyness that the S.S.R.I. class has helped overcome is discussion of depression. Decades ago, Hollywood stars and other celebrities dared not touch the subject. Now they routinely go public with their anguish. Robin Williams was an example.如果说SSRI类药物确实帮助人们克了某些问题,那么,使人们不再羞于讨论抑郁便是其中之一。几十年前,好莱坞明星和其他名人都对这个话题讳莫如深。现在,他们已经可以很习惯地公开谈论自己的苦恼了。罗宾·威廉姆斯就是一个例子。Of course, there are those in other realms of society for whom the topic remains taboo. Take one man who confesses to his wife that he is on Prozac but cautions her to tell no one. ;I#39;m serious,; he says. ;The wrong person finds out about this and I get a steel-jacketed antidepressant right in the back of the head.; This is Tony Soprano talking to his wife, Carmela. An extreme example from a work of fiction? Sure. But in all likelihood many Americans have similar fears about what others might think, and keep depression to themselves.当然,在其他社会领域中,有些人仍然十分忌讳这个话题。例如,有一个人在向自己的妻子承认他在用百忧解时,警告她不要告诉任何人。“我是说真的,”他说。“要是给不该知道的人听到点风声,我就得脑袋后面吃颗钢制的抗抑郁药。”这是《黑道家族》中的托尼·索普拉诺(Tony Soprano)对他的妻子卡尔梅拉(Carmela)说的话。这自然只是虚构作品中的一个极端的例子。但是,在美国人里,恐怕很多都会对别人的看法抱有类似的担忧,所以他们宁愿对自己的抑郁问题守口如瓶。 /201410/336081

A few years ago in Riga, Latvia, I noticed something that surprised me: lots of men pushing prams. You’d expect this in Sweden but not so much in the former Soviet Union.几年前在拉脱维亚首都里加,有一幕景象令我惊讶:推婴儿车的好多是男士。这在瑞典很正常,但孰料在一个前苏联国家也如此普遍。It signalled a trend: the rise of the global father. Around the world, in some very unlikely countries, men are taking a bigger role in childrearing (from a low base). Rather than the end of men, this is their reinvention.它标志了一个趋势:“奶爸”群体正在全球壮大。在世界各地某些极端重男轻女的国家,男人们在育儿上的参与日益增多——虽然基数很低。这不是男性的末日,而是他们的重生。Men are changing because their power over women is waning. “Gender inequality#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;has been on a declining trend over the past 60 years in most world regions,” says the new How Was Life? report by the OECD. Things have got better especially since the 1980s. Women are catching up with men in age at which they get married, seats in parliament, property rights and education. Even Saudi Arabia, the last country where only men are allowed to vote, has promised to let women vote and run in next year’s local elections. The bookmakers’ favourite to take the world’s biggest job in 2016, Hillary Clinton, is a grandmother. True, global sexism remains extreme by almost every measure, except compared with all of history.男性之所以发生这样的改变,原因在于他们凌驾于女性之上的权力正在减弱。根据经合组织(OECD)新一期的《生活调查》(How Was Life?)报告:“过去60年间,全球大部分地区的性别不平等现象……一直呈下降趋势。”尤其自20世纪80年代起,情况更为好转。女性在多个领域赶上了男性,如结婚年龄、议会席位、财产权及教育机会。就连沙特阿拉伯,这个全世界最后一个只允许男性投票的国家也已承诺,女性在明年的地方选举中将获得投票权和选举权。希拉里#8226;克林顿(Hillary Clinton),这位书商的宠儿在2016年承担的最重要的工作是当祖母。其实几乎以所有衡量标准来看,全球的性别歧视依然极为严重,只不过与历史相比有所好转。Gender roles will probably keep on blurring. For millennia, most men lived in villages, got little schooling and were prized for their muscle. But by about 2008, for the first time ever, most humans lived in cities. There they encounter new ideas, and often don’t have grandmothers or aunts nearby who can babysit. The muscular factory jobs traditionally done by men are being lost to robots, even in developing countries such as China. And the world is getting more educated. That changes family life, because most studies find that educated men do more childcare. Each new hands-on father then becomes a role model for his sons.性别角色大概会继续模糊下去。几千年来,人类大部分居住在农村,很少受教育,崇尚力量。但到了2008年左右,城市人口有史以来首次超过了农村人口。人们进城后遇到了新观念,而且祖母或阿姨通常也不会住在附近,不能帮着照看孩子。工厂里以往由男性干的力气活正逐渐由机器人承担,即使在中国等发展中国家也是如此。全球的教育普及度也在不断提高。这改变了家庭生活,因为大部分研究发现,受过教育的男性在育儿方面参与更多。而每位参与型老爸日后又会成为他儿子的榜样。Add on the benevolent effect of American cultural imperialism. Americans at least talk a good game about co-parenting. Their television shows since The Cosby Show have offered exemplars of dutiful fathers; their celebrity magazines feature Brad Pitt with a toddler strapped to his chest. All this has global effects. In Venezuela, for instance, it’s no longer taboo for dads to be photographed holding children, says Leonardo Yánez, programme officer at the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a charity that focuses on fatherhood.美国的文化帝国主义也起了良好的推动作用。美国人至少愿意商谈子女共同监护协议。从《考斯比一家》(The Cosby Show)开始,美剧树立了多个尽责父亲的形象,就连美国的名人杂志也拿布拉德#8226;皮特(Brad Pitt)胸前绑着婴儿的画面当特写。这一切都具有全球影响。据伯纳德#8226;凡#8226;利尔基金会(Bernard van Leer Foundation)项目负责人莱昂纳多#8226;亚涅斯(Leonardo Yánez)介绍,以委内瑞拉为例,爸爸抱着孩子的画面不再是拍照禁忌。One indicator of sping global fatherhood is paternity leave. Forty years ago, after Sweden became the first country to introduce it, any Swedish dad who dared take it up was mocked as a “velourman” after the 1970s unisex fabric, writes The Atlantic magazine. By 1994, 40 of 141 countries for which the International Labour Organization had data offered some form of statutory paternity leave. Last year, 78 out of 167 did – including such non-feminist bastions as Brazil and Rwanda (but not, of course, the US). Even Ireland is now considering it; even Japan wants to expand it.全球奶爸之风盛起的一个指标就是陪产假。据《大西洋》(The Atlantic)月刊记载,40年前瑞典成为率先实行这一制度的国家后,瑞典的爸爸们要是哪个敢休“陪产假”,会被嘲笑为“天鹅绒男”,天鹅绒是上世纪70年代流行的一种中性风格面料。至1994年,根据国际劳工组织(International Labour Organization)所掌握的141个国家的资料,其中有40个国家提供了某种形式的法定陪产假。去年167个提供资料的国家中有78个引进了法定陪产假,包括一些男权至上的堡垒,比如巴西和卢旺达(美国当然不在其列)。就连爱尔兰都在考虑引进陪产假,连日本都想推行它。Other measures help too. In Chile this century, it has become normal for fathers to be present at childbirth – something that can help keep them involved afterwards.其他措施也起了作用。进入本世纪以来,智利的父亲们陪同分娩已成为常事,这样有助于他们参与之后的育儿。When so many different countries are simultaneously changing in the same way, you see that “national culture” isn’t so important. From “Chilean culture” to “Japanese culture”, all countries used to leave childcare to mums. Now, socioeconomic trends and global culture are pushing them all in the other direction, at varying speeds.当这么多国家同时发生同样的改变时,明“民族文化”并没有那么重要。从“智利文化”到“日本文化”,这些国家的习俗都是将孩子留给母亲照顾。如今,在社会经济趋势及全球文化的推动下,这些国家正以不同的速度向另一方向转变。Admittedly, we’re not going to end up at equal parenting any time soon. I live in possibly the most gender-equal circles in the most gender-equal region ever: western Europe’s professional classes. Yet even they don’t do equal parenting. Their new norm is that while mothers scale down their careers and do most of the childcare, dads effectively work 90 per cent, pretending still to work full-time while sneaking off to watch their daughters play football. No dad in my peer group is shooting for the corner office, because it would mess up the bedtime schedule. In Facebook chief operating officer Sheryl Sandberg’s parlance, these dads are “leaning out” at the office. This new form of work-life imbalance should gradually sp among fathers worldwide, reaching Saudi Arabia in about 2114.诚然,平等分担育儿责任的现象不会很快实现。我所在的圈子可能是两性最平等地区里两性最平等的圈子:西欧的专业人士阶层。然而即使是他们都没做到这一点。他们的新常态是,妈妈们减少对事业的投入,承担绝大部分育儿工作,而爸爸们则装得忙于工作,其实10%的时间用来偷偷去看女儿踢球。在我的圈子中,没有一位父亲力争入主“角落的办公室”,因为这样会搞乱就寝时间的安排。根据Facebook首席运营官谢乐尔#8226;桑德伯格(Sheryl Sandberg)的说法,这些爸爸们的身子都“探出了”办公室。这种新形式的工作/生活失衡应会逐步在全球的父亲们中蔓延,大约2114年能到达沙特阿拉伯。The question is how to encourage these trends. We have to make co-parenting dads feel manly, argues Michael Feigelson, interim executive director of the Bernard van Leer Foundation. We mustn’t present the new fatherhood as a defeat or taming of men. Few males want to look, in Arnold Schwarzenegger’s undying phrase, like “girly men”.现在的问题是如何鼓励这股趋势。伯纳德#8226;凡#8226;利尔基金会的临时执行理事迈克尔#8226;费格尔森(Michael Feigelson)认为,我们必须要让参与育儿的父亲感到这很有男子气概,千万不能将这股风气贬低为男性的失败或被驯。套用阿诺德#8226;施瓦辛格(Arnold Schwarzenegger)的名言,没几个男人希望自己看着像“娘娘腔”。A brilliant example of how not to do it came from the leader of New Zealand’s Labour party, David Cunliffe, who in July told a Women’s Refuge forum: “Can I begin by saying I’m sorry? I’m sorry for being a man right now, because family and sexual violence is perpetrated overwhelmingly by men against women and children.”新西兰工党(Labour party)领袖大卫#8226;坎利夫(David Cunliffe)在这方面可没有起到好的表率,今年7月他对一个妇女庇护所(Women’s Refuge)论坛表示:“我可以先说声对不起吗?我为身为一个男性而要说声对不起,因为家庭暴力和性暴力主要是男性对妇女儿童犯下的。”Of course, he lost the election. Nor should women’s groups go around telling men that they’ve been bad and have to change. Rather, the message must be emitted, almost subconsciously, by male role models. A sneaked paparazzi picture of a film star pushing a twin stroller can advance humanity.当然,他落选了。妇女团体也不应到处去告诉男性,他们的表现很糟,必须做出改变。相反,这一信息必须由男性榜样人物几乎下意识地发出。一张电影明星推着双胞胎婴儿车的仔偷拍照有助于促进人性进步。 /201411/341587

Mr. and Mrs. Wang, from Taiwan, both suffer the Alzheimer#39;s. The old couple has forgotten the whole world, but not the memory of each other. (Photo/provided to Chinanews)Nowadays many old people have Alzheimer#39;s disease and other dementias. An old couple, Mr. and Mrs. Wang, from Taiwan, have both suffered from the Alzheimer#39;s for a long time. However, their love, so far, has changed little despite the diagnosis. Their story is just like what is described in an old song:; I can forget the whole world, but not you.;当下许多老年人都患有阿尔兹海默病和其他痴呆症。来自台湾的王老先生和王老太太长时间来双双身患阿尔兹海默病。然而,他们的爱情至今未受疾病影响。他们的故事也正如一首老歌唱的:“我可以忘掉全世界 却难忘你身影。”Mr. Wang, 85, is a retired army officer. He has been marrying his 69-year-old wife for 50 years. The couple suffers in succession the Alzheimer#39;s disease when getting old. The disease took their health and memory away, but couldn#39;t change their decades of deep feelings of each other. They forget everything, but still recognize each other#39;s face. They look for the other#39;s company at any time.王先生,85岁,是名退休军官。他与69岁的妻子结婚50年。随着年龄的老化,夫妻俩相继遭受阿尔兹海默病的折磨。疾病夺走了两人的健康和记忆,但却夺不走彼此间几十年的深刻情感。他们什么也不记得了,但仍能认出对方的脸。并且无时无刻都在牵挂着彼此。Mr. and Mrs. Wang hold each other#39;s hands tightly when taking a walk outside. Only losing the view of his wife for a minute, Mr. Wang will be very anxious.当外出散步时,王先生和王太太都会紧紧牵着手。只要王太太有一刻消失在视线里,王先生都会着急起来。Mr. Wang usually got angry when forgetting his location. When feeling the bad temper of his husband, Mrs. Wang would lose her temper at the same time and help his husband to blame others.每当忘记了地址,王先生都会发脾气。那时,感到丈夫心情不好的王太太也会开始发起气来帮丈夫责怪别人。Recently, Mrs. Wang#39;s condition worsened. She had to receive 24 hours#39; care in the care center. Mr. Wang had to leave his wife every evening. The separation was hard every time, Mr. Wang kept saying: ;Where#39;s my wife? I have to take her home.;最近,王太太的病情恶化了。必须在护理中心接受全天护理。王先生只得每晚都与妻子分开。每次的分离都是痛苦的,王先生会一直念:“我的老婆在哪里?我要带她回家。”Contrary to Mr. Wang#39;s anxiety, Mrs. Wang, in a serious stage of disease, appeared happy every day. She liked to wear red dress and told the people around her that she was going to be married. When people asked her whom she will marry, she voiced out clearly and proudly the name of her husband. Her memory stopped at the happiest period of her life forever.跟王先生的焦虑不同,处于疾病严重期的王太太每天都看起来很快乐。她喜欢穿红裙子,并且会告诉周围的人她就要结婚了。当别人问起新郎是谁的时候,王太太就会清楚嘹亮且骄傲地说出丈夫的名字。她的记忆永远停留在了人生最幸福的时光里。 /201309/256583#39;I KNOW NOTHING about wine--where do I start?#39; is perhaps the most frequent question I am asked. An obvious starting point is with grape varieties, which each have their own distinctive character and flavor. “我对葡萄酒一无所知──我该从哪儿开始?”这可能是我最常被问到的问题。一般来说,可以从了解葡萄品种开始,每个葡萄品种都有自己与众不同的特征和味道。There are more than 5,000 varieties of wine grapes planted in the world. Luckily, for those new to the subject, only 100 or so have enough appeal to be deemed commercially viable. Luckier still, it#39;s a relatively small number that have found international recognition. 世界上种植着超过5,000种酿酒葡萄。幸运的是,对于葡萄酒新手而言,只有100种左右被认为有足够的商业吸引力。还很幸运的是,受到国际认可的品种也相对较少。These used to be referred to as the Noble Grape Varieties, a term coined by the British wine trade to describe the classic grapes of Europe (though it#39;s no longer used in professional wine exams). Nicholas King, research and development manager at the Wine amp; Spirits Education Trust, says it drifted out of use in about 2003. After using #39;common#39; or #39;international,#39; the educational body has now settled on the term #39;principal#39; grape varieties. Jean-Manuel Duvivier这些品种曾被称为“贵族葡萄品种”(Noble Grape Varieties),英国葡萄酒行业用这个词形容欧洲的经典葡萄品种(尽管在专业葡萄酒考试中已不再用这个词)。葡萄酒与烈酒基金会(Wine amp; Spirits Education Trust)的研发经理尼古拉斯·金(Nicholas King)称,此称呼在2003年左右退出使用。在使用过“常见”和“国际”后,这家教育机构现在将其定名为“主要”葡萄品种。Whatever the term, it refers to the eight classic varieties--Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc, Syrah, Grenache and Riesling--whose flavor and character have led to them being exported around the world. Their success has, in many ways, been detrimental to their reputation: the level of planting being such that quality has inevitably been diluted. 不管使用什么名字,它指的都是八个经典葡萄品种──霞多丽(Chardonnay)、黑皮诺(Pinot Noir)、赤霞珠(Cabernet Sauvignon)、梅乐(Merlot)、长相思(Sauvignon Blanc)、西拉(Syrah)、歌海娜(Grenache)和雷司令(Riesling)──它们的味道和特征使它们出口到全世界。从许多方面看,它们的成功都对其声名有损:种植水平相当参差不齐,以至于质量也不可避免地下降。Wherever you are on the wine journey, whether a connoisseur or a novice, an understanding and appreciation of these varieties will benefit you enormously. 不管你对葡萄酒了解多少,是行家还是菜鸟,了解和鉴别这些品种都将使你获益良多。I rather like the old term for them as, in their finest form, these grapes are capable of producing wines that are among the very best in the world. Here#39;s my guide to what every wine drinker should know. 我更喜欢它们的旧名,因为最优质的葡萄才能酿造出世界上最好的葡萄酒。以下是我认为每位葡萄酒品尝者都应该知道的常识。Cabernet Sauvignon 赤霞珠Principally associated with the red wines of the M钼doc in Bordeaux, this variety has been planted all over the world. A late ripener, its small red berries produce wines that when young have a concentrated, dark color and taste predominantly of blackcurrant. Young Cabernet can also have a spicy, herby character and a lot of tannin. With age (and the very best will be long lasting), they develop secondary notes of cedar. Often blended with other varieties, Cabernet Sauvignon is also grown in Australia, Chile, South Africa and California, where it is very successful. 这个品种主要与波尔多(Bordeaux) 梅多克(Medoc)地区的红葡萄酒有关,世界各地均有种植。它是一种晚熟品种,小红浆果酿造出的葡萄酒在年份浅时色泽浓深,尝起来主要是黑醋栗味。年份浅的赤霞珠也可能有辛辣草香味道,富有大量单宁。随着年份渐深(最好的赤霞珠是年份深的陈酒),它们呈现出第二香调──雪松香。赤霞珠通常与其他品种混合种植,也成功生长在澳大利亚、智利、南非和加利福尼亚州。Drinking Now // 1996 Ch#226;teau Lynch Bages, EUR120; and 2011 Los Vascos Cabernet Sauvignon, EUR12 现在品尝//1996年靓茨伯酒庄(Chateau Lynch Bages)产赤霞珠,120欧元;2011年巴斯克酒庄(Los Vascos)产赤霞珠,12欧元Chardonnay 霞多丽Due to the fact that it can be grown successfully almost anywhere, this white grape variety from Burgundy is a global superstar. It can be all things to all men, from rich, buttery and nutty in Burgundy to taut, clean, crisp and dry (most notably in Chablis); sparkling where it is part of the Champagne blend; and ripe with a nose of exotic fruits in warmer regions. Sublime in Burgundy, Chardonnay is also successful in Australia, California, New Zealand and Italy. 由于它几乎可以在任何地方成功生长,这种来自勃艮第(Burgundy)的白葡萄是全球葡萄品种中的超级明星。它的口感多样,适合所有人,从勃艮第的醇厚、黄油和坚果风味到紧致、 透、干爽和清淡风味(夏布利酒(Chablis)最为明显)不一而足;与香槟混酿时它泡沫丰富,成熟时带有温暖地区异域水果的香气。最好的霞多丽产自勃艮第,它在澳大利亚、加利福尼亚洲、新西兰和意大利也可以成功生长。Drinking Now // 2011 Au Bon Climat Los Alamos Chardonnay, EUR24; and 2008 Joseph Drouhin Puligny-Montrachet 1er Cru, EUR60 现在品尝//2011年奥邦洛斯阿拉莫斯酒庄(Au Bon Climat Los Alamos Chardonnay)产霞多丽,24欧元;2008年约瑟夫杜鲁安皮里尼-蒙哈谢一级酒庄(Joseph Drouhin Puligny-Montrachet 1er Cru)产霞多丽,60欧元Grenache 歌海娜Powerful, low in acidity, high in alcohol, this hearty red-wine grape is the staple for Ch#226;teauneuf-du-Pape, where it finds its greatest expression. Extensively planted, it is believed to have originated in Spain before being introduced to the Rh#244;ne valley, where it produces rich, fruity wines. Often blended with Syrah and Mourv dre, you will also find Grenache in Australia, California, Spain, and throughout the Mediterranean basin. 这种劲大、低酸度、高酒精度的美味红酒葡萄是教皇新堡(Chateauneuf-du-Pape)的主要原料,它的特征在这里发挥得淋漓尽致。这种广泛种植的葡萄被认为原产于西班牙,之后它被引入罗讷河谷(Rhone valley),在那里酿造出浓醇的果味葡萄酒。歌海娜经常与西拉和慕维德(Mourvedre)混酿,它也生长于澳大利亚、加利福尼亚洲、西班牙和整个地中海盆地。Drinking Now // 2009 Ch#226;teau Mont Redon Ch#226;teauneuf-du-Pape, EUR18; and 2008 Domaine de la Mordor钼e Lirac La Reine des Bois, EUR25 现在品尝//2009年夕铎酒庄(Chateau Mont Redon)产教皇新堡,18欧元;2008年份蒙多利酒庄(Domaine de la Mordoree) 利哈克(Lirac)产区产森林女王(La Reine des Bois),25欧元Merlot 梅乐Soft, supple and fruity, Merlot is the yin to Cabernet Sauvignon#39;s yang. Mainly grown on the Right Bank of Bordeaux, it is the principal variety of Pomerol and is often blended with Cabernet. It produces red wines that are packed full of fruit notes such as blackcurrant and plums--wines that can be high in alcohol but, due to their soft tannins, can be drunk young. Outside of France, it is grown in northern Italy, California, Washington state and Chile. 梅乐的口感绵软、柔和、带有果香,如果赤霞珠是阳,它就是阴。梅乐主要生长在波尔多右岸(Right Bank),是波美侯(Pomerol)的主要品种,通常与赤霞珠混酿。它酿造出的红葡萄酒充满水果香调,例如黑醋栗和李子──这种葡萄酒的酒精度可能很高,但由于含绵软的单宁,可以在年份较浅时喝。除了法国,它还生长在意大利北部、加利福尼亚州、华盛顿州和智利。Drinking Now // 1999 Ch#226;teau Saint-Poly, EUR27; and 2010 Meerlust Merlot, EUR24 现在品尝//1999年 波丽酒庄(Chateau Saint-Poly)产梅乐,27欧元;2010年美蕾酒庄(Meerlust)产梅乐,24欧元Pinot Noir 黑皮诺Delicate, early-ripening and, with thin skins, difficult to grow, Pinot Noir grapes find their natural home in France#39;s Burgundy region. Here, the variety produces texturally light red wines that have aromas of raspberry, cherry, violets and sometimes game. It is also successfully grown in cooler regions such as Oregon, Germany, parts of Australia, California and New Zealand, where it achieves greatness. As well as producing red wines (for which it is rarely blended), it is also grown in Champagne and blended with Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier. 黑皮诺葡萄娇嫩、早熟、皮薄、很难种植,它的天然家乡在法国的勃艮第地区。在这里,黑皮诺酿造出质地轻盈,带有覆盆子、樱桃、紫罗兰(有时还有野味)香气的红酒。它在俄勒冈州、德国、澳大利亚的部分地区、加利福尼亚州和新西兰等较凉爽的地区也可以成功生长。它不但可以用来酿造红葡萄酒(此时很少混酿),还生长在香槟地区,与霞多丽和莫尼耶皮诺(Pinot Meunier)混酿。Drinking Now // 2008 Bruno Clair Marsannay Les Vaudenelles, EUR18; and 2009 Marimar Estate Pinot Noir, EUR26 现在品尝//2008年布鲁诺克莱尔酒庄(Bruno Clair)马沙内(Marsannay) 产区坡顶产黑皮诺,18欧元;2009年玛尔玛酒庄(Marimar Estate)产黑皮诺,26欧元Riesling 雷司令This ancient variety from Germany is particularly popular with oenophiles. In Germany it produces wines that are crisp, light and fruity. Their nose can range from pungent perfume to flowers, limes, lemons and, with age, petrol. Their charm is the way they can marry acidity with either dryness or sweetness on the palate. The very best are always refreshing. Riesling is also grown in Alsace, Australia, Oregon and California. 雷司令这个来自德国的古老品种特别受到品酒行家好评。在德国,它酿造出爽口、清淡、带有果香的葡萄酒。它的香气从刺鼻香水到鲜花、酸橙和柠檬香不一而足,年份深时为汽油香。它的魅力在于能将酸度和清单或甘甜的口感完美搭配。最好的雷司令总是口味清爽的。雷司令也生长在阿尔萨斯(Alsace)、澳大利亚、俄勒冈州和加利福尼亚州。Drinking Now // 2012 Weingut Thorle Riesling Kalkstein, EUR24; and 2011 Concha y Toro Corte Ignacio Casablanca Riesling, EUR10 现在品尝//2012年托勒酒庄(Weingut Thorle)石灰岩土壤产雷司令,24欧元;2011年份干露酒庄(Concha y Toro) 产科尔特-伊格纳西奥(Corte Ignacio) 卡萨布兰卡谷(Casablanca)雷司令,10欧元 Sauvignon Blanc 长相思Refreshing, grassy, aromatic, scintillating, light, direct--there are myriad descriptors suitable for this white grape variety. Now widely planted, it was originally grown in Bordeaux and the Loire, where it produces a crisp, dry style. Today it is best known for its new spiritual home in New Zealand, where it overflows with ripe, tropical characteristics such as gooseberry, pineapple and green pepper. 清爽、草香、芬芳、起泡、轻盈、直白──无数形容词都适合这种白葡萄。原产于波尔多和卢瓦尔河(Loire)流域的它现在种植广泛,可以酿造出干爽清淡型葡萄酒。如今,它最为人熟知的新精神家园在新西兰,它在那里充分散发出成熟的热带特征,例如醋栗、菠萝和青椒香气。 Drinking Now // 2011 Lucien Crochet Sancerre, EUR15; and 2013 Cloudy Bay Sauvignon Blanc, EUR32 现在品尝//2011年吕西安克罗谢酒庄(Lucien Crochet)桑塞尔产区(Sancerre)产长相思,15欧元;2013年云雾之湾(Cloudy Bay)产长相思,32欧元Syrah or Shiraz 西拉或设拉子(Shiraz)In France, Syrah produces a dark, brooding red wine, packed full of tannin, that smells overwhelmingly of pepper and can age beautifully. In the northern Rh#244;ne it is found in such famous appellations as Hermitage and C#244;te-R#244;tie. In Australia, where it is known as Shiraz, it produces an altogether different wine, replacing its savory northern Rh#244;ne notes with dark fruit, chocolate and licorice. Widely planted around the world, this variety produces big, bold red wines that are best drunk with red meat. 在法国,西拉酿造出黯深、沉郁的红葡萄酒,充满单宁香气,闻起来有冲鼻的胡椒味,年份越深越漂亮。在罗讷河(Rhone)北部,它见于埃米塔日(Hermitage)和罗帝丘(Cote-Rotie) 等著名产区。在澳大利亚(它在那里被称为设拉子),它酿造出一种完全不同的葡萄酒,黑色水果、巧克力和甘草的香气代替了美味的罗讷河北部香调。这个品种广泛种植于全世界,酿造出香醇浓烈的葡萄酒,饮用时最好与红肉搭配。Drinking Now // 2010 Andr钼 Perret St. Joseph, EUR27; and 2009 Torbreck Woodcutter#39;s Shiraz, EUR25 现在品尝//2010年安爵佩雷酒庄(Andre Perret)产 约瑟(St. Joseph),27欧元;2009年托布雷酒庄(Torbreck)产伐木工设拉子(Woodcutter#39;s Shiraz),25欧元 /201404/289531

1. Penguins Mate for Life1. 企鹅伴侣厮守终生?During the mid-2000s, films like ;Happy Feet; made penguins all the rage, and young lovers went around spouting off facts like ;penguins mate for life.; While the idea is sweet, it#39;s not exactly true.Penguins usually stick with their partners through the mating season, but when it#39;s time to mate again, they choose whomever is convenient, not necessarily their old flame.几年前,《快乐的大脚》等多部以企鹅为题材的电影热映,令这种憨态可掬的可爱动物风靡全球。与此同时,“企鹅伴侣厮守终生”的说法也在年轻人尤其是小情侣间流传开来。尽管这个说法很动听,但它并不是事实。目前大约有18个企鹅物种,它们的交配习性在本质上相似。交配季期间,它们会与选定的伴侣厮守在一起。但当下一个交配季来临时,它们会再次选择合适的配偶,不论对方是不是自己的“旧爱”。对于筑巢的企鹅来说,交配季时还会上演肥皂剧戏码。例如阿德利公企鹅会筑好巢穴接受母企鹅检查,如果公企鹅之前的配偶来到了,“旧爱”可能会将“新欢”赶出巢穴。2. Vincent Van Gogh Cut Off His Entire Ear2. 梵高割下整只耳朵?This is not entirely true. It was not his entire ear - just the tip of the lobe - and some say he didn#39;t even do it. Van Gogh lived with artist Paul Gauguin, who had quite a violent temper, and many believe Gauguin actually did the cutting.Either way, Van Gogh did reportedly send the tip to a prostitute.据史料记载,荷兰著名画家文森特#8226;梵高曾割掉耳朵,后在法国瓦兹河饮弹自杀。但需要澄清的是,梵高割掉的不是整只耳朵,而是一部分耳垂。至于梵高割耳事件,有几个不同的版本。有人说他是割下耳朵洗净放在信封里,送给一名;有人说他是在得知自己经济和情感的柱——弟弟——即将结婚的消息后,精神崩溃割掉耳朵;还有人认为是梵高与好友、同样赫赫有名的画家高更争执时,被高更用剑砍掉了耳朵。3. Napoleon Bonaparte was Short3. 拿破仑是个矮子?Everyone knows Napoleon Bonaparte was a tiny man - after all, his nickname was ;le Petit Corporal.; His reputation for being short even inspired the phenomenon known as the ;Napoleon complex.;In reality, Napoleon stood around 5 feet and 7 inches tall, which was very average back in the day. Many believe his nickname was meant as a term of endearment, not a reference to his height.在心理学上有一个概念,被称为“拿破仑情结”,也叫作“矮个子症候群”。简单来说,就是矮个子比高个子更有暴力倾向。不难看出,身材矮小已成为贴在拿破仑身上最醒目的标签之一。人们普遍认为拿破仑是个矮子,这一看法源于他临终时测得的身高为5英尺2英寸(约合1.57米),但这是法国旧度量制度测量的结果,按照现在的单位换算,拿破仑的身高接近5英尺7英寸(约合1.7米),在他所处的年代这属于平均身高。那么,拿破仑为何被称作“小士兵”(Le Petit Caporel)?这是对他的爱称,而非取笑。4. Ben Franklin Preferred a Turkey to a Bald Eagle4. 富兰克林建议选火鸡当美国国鸟?The bald eagle is certainly a well-known representation of America, but legend has it that if Ben Franklin had his way, a turkey would have been much better. In reality, Franklin wrote a letter to his daughter mocking the eagle symbol used in a seal by the Society of the Cincinnati, a private military group.He said it looked like a turkey and may as well be one.本杰明#8226;富兰克林发明了避雷针,是一名杰出的发明家,也是美国著名政治家。有历史故事称,富兰克林不满意白头鹰作为美国国鸟,他建议选用火鸡。这其实是误读。在富兰克林写给女儿的一封信中,他讥讽一个私人军事组织将白头鹰用于印章,但他嘲笑的是印章上的白头鹰看起来像火鸡,而不是说火鸡更适合做美国国鸟。5. You Have Five Senses5. 人只有五种感觉?If you remember learning about the senses in elementary school, you know humans possess five: sight, smell, hearing, touch, and taste. Most scientists agree, however, that you have more like 10-20 senses, including pain, hunger, thirst, temperature, and more.古希腊哲学家亚里士多德认为,人有五种感觉:视觉、听觉、触觉、嗅觉和味觉。直至今日,这种说法仍得到主流科学家们的认同,因为这五种感觉能被检测出来。人还有其他的感觉吗?当然,疼痛、饥饿、口渴、冷热等等都是人的感觉,但不是通过前面五个“官”感知,而是地地道道、没有清晰位置或表现的感觉,这些感觉多达10至20种。6. George Washington had Wooden Teeth6. 乔治#8226;华盛顿有一口木质假牙?George Washington is known for three things: being the first president, chopping down a cherry tree, and having wooden teeth. At least one of these is certainly not true. While Washington did have bad teeth, his dentures were not wooden.提起乔治#8226;华盛顿,绝大多数人会马上联想到三件事:他是美国首任总统,他小时候砍倒了一棵樱桃树以及他有一口木质假牙。其中,至少有一件事不是真的,虽然华盛顿的牙口确实不好,但他的假牙不是木头做的。曾任美国加州大学洛杉矶牙科学院院长的里德尔#8226;索格内斯德深入研究了华盛顿的假牙。他宣称,华盛顿配过多副假牙,有铅制的、象牙的,也有使用人的、牛的以及其他动物的牙齿,但没有当时流行的木质假牙。而且,华盛顿的牙齿并不是全部脱落,到总统就职典礼时,除假牙外,他还有一颗真牙能够承担咀嚼工作。7. Einstein was a Bad Student7. 爱因斯坦学习成绩差?If you ever made bad grades and pulled the old ;Albert Einstein used to make bad grades; card with your parents or teachers, you are lucky you got away with it. In reality, Einstein was at the top of his class and mastered calculus when he was barely a teenager.The reputation he developed for being a bad student had more to do with his behavior. He liked to talk back to his teachers.经常有学生考砸了,就拿出“爱因斯坦小时候学习成绩也不好”的说辞为自己辩解。但事实上,爱因斯坦上学时一直在班级里成绩拔尖,他十几岁时就掌握了微积分。至于爱因斯坦为何会落下一个“坏学生”的名声,这与他的言行有关。爱因斯坦成绩好,但并不循规蹈矩、对老师的话言听计从,他遇事喜欢自己思考、提出自己的见解,也因此经常顶撞老师。 /201408/321480

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