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Bribery贿赂Graft work移花接木A new study lights up the shadows无处遁形GONE are the days when multinationals could book bribes paid in far-flung countries as a tax-deductible expense. These days would-be palm-greasers have to contend with ever-tougher enforcement of old laws, such as Americas Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, and a raft of new ones in countries from Britain to Brazil.有种日子一去不复返了,想当年,跨国公司可以先行贿,然后在远远找个国家付以抵扣公司税。 如今,想要伸手的人必须面对依然严峻的原有法令,例如1977年的美国反海外贿赂法,以及从英国到巴西等国家的一大堆新颁法令。 As policing is stepped up, however, much about the practice of bribery remains murky. The OECDs first report on the subject, published on December 2nd, sheds some light by analysing more than 400 international bribery cases that have been brought since the anti-bribery convention of this group of mostly rich countries came into force in 1999.虽然加强了监管,但是,许多贿赂行为仍然在暗处作祟。国际经合组织首次就此问题撰写的首次报告在12月2日发表,通过分析从1999年主要是由发达国家组成的该组织颁布的反贿赂公约生效以来的超过400起跨国贿赂案例,而发人深省。Some findings confirm what was known or suspected. The most bribe riddled sectors are oil, gas, mining, construction and transport. At the other end of the spectrum, financial services and retailing are fairly clean. Most bribes go to managers of state-owned companies, followed by customs officials. And America leads the enforcement pack, with 128 cases that resulted in sanctions (see chart).一些调查结果实了那些所知到的和所怀疑的东西。贿赂最泛滥的领域是石油、天然气、采矿、建筑和运输业。而在该序列的另一端,金融务和零售业则相当清白。大多数贿赂聚焦在国有企业的管理人员,其次是海关官员。美国查处力度最大,处置了128起案件。But the report also undermines some common beliefs. Bribery is not a sin of rogue employees or poor countries. In 53% of cases payments were made or authorised by corporate managers (and in 12% of them by the chief executive). More than 40% of the time, the bribe-taking official was in a developed country (though this figure is probably inflated by rich countries greater willingness to criminalise bribery and co-operate with cross-border investigations). Authorities are often alerted by firms themselves: those that co-operate quickly are often treated leniently.但报告也对一些常识造成了冲击。贿赂不是居心不良的员工和贫穷国家才有的罪恶。在53%的案件中由公司管理者亲自或授权付贿款,其中12%由总裁进行。超过40%的案件中,受贿的公务人员来自发达国家(虽然这个数据可能被发达国家的惩治贿赂以及进行跨国协作调查的强烈意愿夸大了)。当局常常收到公司自己的报案:毕竟坦白从宽嘛。Nevertheless, the cleanest countries tend to be rich, and the dirtiest poor. Four of the five best-performing countries in Transparency Internationals latest corruption-perceptions index, also published this week, were Nordic. The worst were North Korea and Somalia. (Interestingly, Chinas score slipped despite a recent high-profile campaign against corrupt officials.)尽管如此,最清廉的国家仍然是那些富国,而最糟糕的还是穷国。五个在“透明国际”组织最新的清廉指数中(也是本周刚刚发布)表现得最好的国家是北欧。最差的是朝鲜和索马里。(有意思的是,尽管近期有高调的反腐运动,中国的评分仍然下降了)The cost of bribery varies by industry. Builders pay a modest average of 4% of a transactions value; extractive companies a hefty 21%. Add to that the rising costs of paying penalties and conducting internal probes—these cost Siemens, for example, .4 billion when it was mired in a graft scandal a few years ago—and bribery starts to look bad not just for reputations, but also for bottom lines.行贿的成本因行业而异。建筑商平均付成交价的4%,较为适中;而采掘业企业则高达21%。加上那些日益上升的罚款和进行内部调查的出(以西门子为例,当数年前深陷贪污门之时,这些费用高达24亿美元),于是,如今行贿可不仅仅是名誉上看起来不妙,更关乎盈亏生死。Even for firms that are not caught, the business case for bribery is far from clear. A 2013 study by Harvard Business School and Americas National Bureau of Economic Research found that what bribe-paying companies gain in higher sales in corrupt countries, they lose in lower profit margins. According to the OECD, the average bribe costs 11% of the transactions value and 35% of associated profits.即使是对那些还没有东窗事发的公司,搞贿赂的生意也是一摊烂账。2013年由哈佛商学院和美国全国经济研究局的研究表明,行贿公司虽然在一些腐败国家的赢得了更高的销售额,但实际上由于降低了利润率而蒙受损失。根据经合组织的调查,平均的行贿出占到交易额的11%和相关利润的35%。Nevertheless, graft remains alive and well. One of the OECD reports authors told a conference this week that 390 cases are under investigation—not far short of the total number resolved since the OECD convention took effect 15 years ago. The number of cases concluded each year has dipped since a peak in 2011 as the time taken to complete investigations and prosecutions has climbed to more than seven years, from under four in 2008.即使这样,贪腐仍然搞得有声有色。经合组织报告的一位作者在本周的一次会议上谈到目前正在调查390起案件,与自从经合组织公约15年前生效以来已了结总案件数差的不远了。每年结案的数量自从2011年达到峰值以来逐年下降,因为那正开展全面调查和起诉,从2008年不到4起攀升到七年来的最高峰的时候。One possible reason for the slowdown is that bribery techniques are growing more sophisticated and thus harder to detect. Another could be the widesp use of opaque corporate structures to conceal wrongdoing. These can be devilishly difficult to unpick, especially when they are stacked in several layers and fronted by nominee directors. Anonymous shell companies and other intermediaries—sometimes dressed up as “consultants”—were used to move or to house payments in more than 70% of cases. The OECD report underlines the importance of cracking down on the misuse of shell companies and enforcing more clarity over ownership of companies and trusts, whether through accessible corporate registers—a move being pushed by some G20 countries, led by Britain—or by tougher regulation of service providers that do the paperwork for new firms.放缓的原因之一是收受贿赂的手段越来越玄妙,从而更难于察觉。另一个原因可能是普遍使用的不透明公司结构隐匿了丑行。剥离这些结构异常艰难,特别当是这种组织层层堆叠,由提名董事来在前面顶缸的时候。在70%的案例中,匿名的皮包公司和其他中间人(通常扮演“顾问公司”角色)用来转移或隐匿所付款项。经合组织的报告凸显了打击滥用空壳公司和明晰公司及信托公司权属的重要性,要么是通过方便的公司注册检索(一些G20国家推动了该项运动,由英国牵头),要么对负责经办新公司事宜的务商的严格监管。 翻译:沈竹 校对:刘苗苗 译文属译生译世 /201412/347647Just like that.If you see a news report that you think I should see.就像那样 如果你看到一则新闻 觉得我应该看看Please send it to me.I love these things.Here is something you should see.请把它发给我 我好这口 下面的视频你也应该看看Ah, last weekend we sent one of our assistant Jason to a restaurant with a birthday cake for his grandma.嗯 上周末我们派了一位助理杰森 去一家餐厅 带上给他奶奶做的蛋糕And he asked people to hold it.But the cake was rigged.然后他让别人帮他拿着 但是蛋糕被做过手脚So that it would immediately fell off the tray.But the cake was rigged.端着会立刻从托盘上滑下来 于是他又做了一个And he brought his grandma with him to Chilis.My grandmas.Beautiful.他还带上了奶奶去Chilis 这是给我奶奶的 真漂亮Actually I am looking to take a quick picture.Can you hold it quickly for me?Beautiful.事实上我正想给它拍一张照 你能帮我端一下吗 当然If you just lower so I can get it over.And 3, 2... Oh... Oh.Hi, grandma.你能放低点吗 我可以拍下整个蛋糕 准备 3 2 噢 噢 你好 奶奶Oh, my birthday cake?My grandma comes, its her birthday.No.啊 我的生日蛋糕 我奶奶要来了 今天是她的生日 不Jason, what did you do to my cake?We dropped it. I am sorry.杰森 你对我的蛋糕做了什么 我们弄掉了 抱歉Its all right. It looks okay.Oh, man.Do you have an interview?Yeah?没事的 它看上去还好 天哪 老兄 你有一个面试吗 什么Do you have an interview?Yeah. - Good luck in.Yeah. - Good luck in.你在等面试吗 是的 -祝你好运 谢啦老兄 -你能帮个小忙吗Just hold it quick.My grandmas birthday.Here it is.Oh...Grandma.只是端着它而已 (今天是)我奶奶的生日 拿好了 噢 奶奶Jason, what did you do to my cake?We just got a little messy, gradma.杰森 你对我的蛋糕做了什么 我们只是出了点小意外 奶奶Well get this Here.Happy Birthday to you.Happy Birthday to you.Happy Birthday dear grandma.Happy Birthday to you.这个我们还是可以用 给你 祝你生日快乐 祝你生日快乐 祝你生日快乐 亲爱的奶奶 祝你生日快乐I dont think so.Can I say something? - Yeah.Youre on the Ellen Degeneres show right now.Thanks, buddy.我并不如此认为 听我说 哥们 -怎么了 你上了艾伦秀 谢谢你 老兄Elbow high five, thanks for being a good support.You want some cake? Oh, Im fine, thank you.- Good luck on your interview. Thank you.用肘击个掌 谢谢你的持 你想尝一点蛋糕吗 哦 不用了 谢谢 祝你面试顺利 谢谢Oh he clapped in everything. So sweet!Well be right back.哦 他什么都可以拍得精 真贴心 我们马上回来 /201602/425333

Its a question that will attract more attention than it might have before Detroits bankruptcy raised the spectre of selling off the Detroit Institute of Artscollection to help pay down the citys crushing debt.Fortunately, the DIA survived unscathed, thanks to 0 million raised by long-time donors.Detroit News columnist Laura Berman has now learned that the art world is quietly talking about the possibility that the DIA is fixing to sell one of its Van Goghs.During the bankruptcy, we heard howls of protest from DIA officials like Graham Beal and Annemarie Erickson that selling art would destroy the museum and its reputation.Then why is suddenly OK to sell?Berman says selling art to acquire other art is a common practice in the world of art museums that is well within the purview of museum ethics, but director Beal stopped it bankruptcy in order to prevent confusion.Berman says despite considering the possibility, Graham Beal has categorically denied the auction of the item. She says Beal will likely leave the responsibility of bringing the DIA back into the business of art acquisition to his successor.After being out of the loop for so long, the DIA faces growing pains as it re-enters the art auction market. But this is all good news because, as Berman puts it, the museum is back to being a museum.201505/375232

The world this week-Business本周商业报道Tesco reported a worse-than-expected pre-tax loss of 6.4 billion (.6 billion) for the year to February 28th, one of the biggest losses in British corporate history. The worlds third-biggest supermarket retailer, which is being squeezed by discount rivals such as Aldi, booked several charges and took a hefty write-down in the value of its stores. Dave Lewis, the chief executive, said it had been “a very difficult year”, an understatement given the catalogue of profit warnings.截止到2月28日的2014财年,乐购超市税前亏损64亿英镑,比想象的更糟糕。这是英国公司历史上绝无仅有的亏损数额。作为世界第三大零售超市,乐购遭遇到阿尔迪等折扣超市的激烈竞争,并且受到几件官司的影响及其市面价值急剧下降。CEO大卫·刘易斯称,对乐购来说“这一年不好过“。从收益表来看,情况要比他所述严重。Meanwhile, Which? lodged a complaint with Britains competition authority against what it described assupermarkets “misleading” pricing practices from “ dodgy multi-buys to baffling sales offers”. The consumer lobby said that convoluted pricing has left customers bewildered.同时, Which? 向英国竞争委投诉了关于超市”误导人”的标价策略。这些策略包括从“骗人的多件更便宜”到“让人眼花撩乱的特价商品”。这家消费者游说代表称,这些迷惑人的标价手段让消费者困惑。Petrobras, Brazils state-controlled oil giant, released its much-delayed quarterly results, its first audited accounts since a corruption scandal involving former executives shook the government of President Dilma Rousseff. The company wrote off 6.2 billion reais (2.1 billion) because of the alleged graft and a further 44.6 billion reais for overvalued assets, mainly on a petrochemical plant and a refinery.巴西国营石油巨头巴西石油,公布了延期已久的季度报表。这是自其前首席等人贪污受贿丑闻动摇了总统迪尔玛·罗塞夫政府以来,首个审计后的账目。由于涉嫌贪污,且另有446亿雷亚尔的高估资产,公司购销了用于建设石油化工厂和精炼厂的62亿雷亚尔(合约21亿美元)。Executives from Comcast met regulators at the Justice Department and Federal Communications Commission to argue the case for their proposed billion takeover of Time Warner Cable. Comcast did not comment about the talks, but the FCC might hold an administrative hearing on the deal, which would be a sign that it is not warming to the idea.就450亿收购时代华纳有线电视公司的提议,康卡斯特的高管们与来自司法部和联邦通信委员会的人员进行了见面会谈。康卡斯特并没有对会谈发表看法,但是联邦通信委员会就该收购进行行政听审,这可能是表明其对这个想法并无好感。In an attempt to increase lending to business, the Peoples Bank of China lowered the level of cash that banks must set aside as reserves, reducing the reserve-requirement ratio by one percentage point, the biggest cut since the global financial crisis in 2008. This came after data showed that Chinas economy grew in the first quarter at its weakest pace since early and that industrial production had slowed considerably in March.为了进一步鼓励商业贷款,中国人民降低了存款准备金,把存款准备金率降至1%,这是自2008年全球金融危机以来最大幅度的下调。在此之前,有数据显示,中国经济第一季度出现自年初以来最缓慢增速,且三月份工业产量大幅下降。The Nikkei 225 stockmarket index closed above 20,000 for the first time in 15 years. Japanese shares have been boosted in part by a government-backed drive for companies to return more of their 231 trillion yen (.9 trillion) cash pile to shareholders. Markets were also buoyed by Japans first monthly trade surplus in three years.日经225股票指数收盘位超过20000点,此为15年来首次。日本政府持企业向股民返还231万亿日元(合约1.9万亿美元)资金,受此举刺激,日本股市大涨。日本3年来首次出现月度贸易顺差也刺激了市场上扬。Wonga, Britains biggest payday lender, reported an annual loss, following a crackdown on the industry that led to a 36% drop in its lending volumes.由于受到了行业打压而导致借款总量降低了36%,英国最大的短期信贷公司Wonga公布了年度亏损报告。A 36-year-old day trader operating out of a suburban house in London that sits under Heathrows flight path was charged by American authorities with involvement in the “flash crash” on May 6th 2010 that saw stockmarkets dive by 10% within just a few minutes. Navinder Singh Sarao appeared in court to fight his extradition to America, where he is accused, among other things, of “spoofing” the futures market by placing phoney orders.36岁英国交易员纳温德·辛格·萨劳,居住在伦敦郊区位于希思罗航线下方的房子里。美国政府指控他涉嫌参与2010年5月6号导致股票价格几分钟内下跌10%的“闪电崩盘“。继在美国被抓后,纳温德出庭就因涉嫌出售虚假订单扰乱期货市场而被引渡到美国进行辩护。The febrile dealmaking in the drug industry continued as Teva, based in Israel and the worlds biggest maker of generic drugs, launched an unsolicited billion takeover of Mylan, an American rival. Mylan had itself recently offered billion for Perrigo, which has its headquarters in Ireland (that deal has been scotched). If it succeeds, Tevas acquisition would be the biggest foreign takeover yet made by an Israeli firm.制药行业交易热度不断。世界最大的非专利药品生产公司---以色列梯瓦公司 主动提出以400亿美元的价格收购竞争对手美国迈兰制药。迈兰不久前提出以290亿美元价格收购总部位于爱尔兰的百利高(交易未能达成)。如果梯瓦收购成功,这将成为以色列公司最大的境外并购。After years of declining profit margins Volvo dismissed Olof Persson as chief executive. The Swedish lorry-maker named Martin Lundstedt as its new boss, who currently heads Scania, a rival that is owned by Volkswagen. The German carmaker has had its own management problems of late, with its supervisory board issuing support for Martin Winterkorn as chief executive despite his spat with Ferdinand Pi?ch, the chairman.因利润率逐年下降,沃尔沃罢免了首席执行官欧罗夫·佩森。瑞典籍卡车制造商伦德斯·泰特接任,他当前是沃尔沃的竞争对手——大众旗下斯堪尼亚公司的首席执行官。大众汽车近来管理层出现了问题,监管理事持马丁·文德恩当首席执行官,即使其与董事长费迪南德·皮耶希有矛盾。Google launched a wireless service that charges a month for phone and text services and per gigabyte of data, but which refunds customers if they dont use all their data allowance. It also overhauled its mobile-search algorithm to prefer sites that are mobile-friendly. The consequences for the search rankings of some organisations have caused the change to be dubbed “mobilegeddon”.谷歌开通了一项无线网络务,电话和短信务每月20美元,1G流量每月10美元,但是流量如果没有用完将退费给消费者。而且更新了移动搜索系统中的推荐网页使其更适合手机。这导致众多企业的搜索排名改变,人们称之为“手机浩劫”。Cirque du Soleil was bought by a consortium that includes Fosun, a Chinese conglomerate that hopes to develop the acrobatic troupes shows in China, where they have not gone down so well with audiences used to large-scale circuses. Fosun has been boosting its entertainment portfolio to tap into leisure spending by Chinas middle classes, buying Club Med this year and investing in Thomas Cook.太阳马戏团被包括中国巨头复兴集团在内的财团收购。复兴集团希望发展中国的杂技表演,中国观众过去常看大型马戏演出,但是今日不同往日。复兴大力发展产业来挖掘中国中产阶级的花费,今年购买了地中海俱乐部并投资了通济隆。翻译:刘苗苗 校对:戴秀平 译文属译生译世201505/373603Around the world many cities are aly taking action to adapt to the future impacts of climate change. 世界各地的许多城市开始采取行动,以适应未来气候变化的影响。Some of these efforts include energy efficiency, new drainage systems, and improved transportation infrastructure. 这些努力包括能源效率、新的排水系统以及改进的交通基础设施。C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group is a global network for cities committed to addressing climate change. C40城市气候变化领导小组是一个致力于应对气候变化的全球城市网络。One of the biggest issues facing major cities, is that not all cities have the same resources to address the issues. 大城市面临的最大问题之一,就是并不是所有的城市都有同样的资源来解决问题。New studies show that in general, cities in developed nations, such as London or New York, all spend around 0.22 percent of their total GDP on climate adaptation, 新的研究表明一般情况下,发达国家的城市如伦敦或纽约,花费约占生产总值的百分之0.22应对气候适应,whereas cities in developing nations, such as Jakarta and Lagos, all spend about 0.15 percent.而在发展中国家城市,如雅加达和拉各斯,花费约百分之0.15。译文属。201603/428949

Small as the Nazi Party was at the time this footage was shot in the 1920s, most of the elements that would come together to make Hitler be seen as a leader of charisma were aly in place.这段影片拍摄于20年代 当时纳粹党规模不大,但使希特勒成为领导人所需条件均已成熟。His mission-to create a racist, Aryan, German state.他的使命是创造属于雅利安人的种族主义德国。The connection he made with his audience via his speeches.他通过演讲唤起听众共鸣。His claim that he possessed strength because he was a proven war hero.宣称自己是货真价实的战斗英雄拥有强大力量。His Darwinian vision, developed in Mein Kampf,which also contained the fantasy that the Jews and Communists were to blame for everything.他在《我的奋斗》中阐述达尔文主义观点并声称犹太人和社会主义者是万恶之源。But still, if you werent aly inclined to accept Hitlers views,then, you felt he possessed no charisma at all.但若不倾向接受希特勒的观点,你不会觉得他具备任何领袖魅力。I immediately disliked him because of his scratchy voice.他尖锐的声音立刻让我反感。He shouted out really, really simple political ideas.他高喊空洞的政治口号。I thought he wasnt quite normal.我觉得他不太正常。He put forward certain claims that were in no way valid and I said to my friend,My impression after that speech is that this man Hitler will hopefully never come to political power.他阐述的观点毫无根据,听完他演讲后,我跟朋友说我希望这个希特勒永远不要掌权。And in 1928, it looked like he never would.1928年的希特勒,看来的确不能掌权。 The vast majority of people in Germany were completely immune to Hitlers charisma.希特勒的领袖魅力对多数德国民众来说毫无作用。At the election in May 1928,the Nazis gained just 2.6% of the vote.1928年5月的选举中,纳粹只有2.6%的选票。Hitlers appeal only began to be felt beyond a small group of fanatics because of an economic catastrophe.然而,由于一次经济灾难希特勒的信徒不再是一小撮狂热分子。 译文属201511/412822China has relaxed a bit since: for a while, one film fan had a blog called Research Centre for Nipples in Chinese Films.据一位电影爱好者的客中国电影乳房研究中心所言,自那时开始,中国已经逐渐放开了一些。However, prudishness has revived in recent years.但是近年来保守之风又死灰复燃。The nude scene in Titanic, a Hollywood film, was screened intact in China in 1998, for example, but removed from the 3D version released in 2012.例如好莱坞电影《泰坦尼克》1998年在中国放映时,戏中的裸露镜头是保持完整的,但是在2012年重新发布的3D版中却被删减。Heaving bosoms have been blacklisted too:丰满的胸部也被列入了黑名单:in the past year two popular TV dramas have been forced to re-edit shots that include plunging necklines and to zoom in on the actresses faces instead (movies involving such filming techniques are referred to scathingly as big-head ones).去年两部热播电视部就被强迫重新编辑镜头,聚焦到将含有低胸画面的镜头改成女主角的脸部(使用到此类拍摄技巧的电影被人们戏谑地称为大头娃娃版)。Online streaming sites, which previously had often succeeded in escaping the censors attention, are coming under closer scrutiny.线上媒体先前逃脱了审查者的注意,但现在也被置于更严格的审查中。Moral strictures are not applied equally.然而道德标准并不公正。Regulators warn against displaying excessive drinking, smoking and other bad habits, for example, yet smoking is routine on Chinese screens.例如,监管者们对播放过度饮酒,抽烟或其他陋习提出警告,然而在中国电影电视中,抽烟的镜头依旧比比皆是。One blockbuster released in 2015, Gone with the Bullets, had to delay its premiere, probably because it had to adjust some of its sexually suggestive content.2015年的电影巨作《一步之遥》不得不延迟上映,或许是因为要修改其中一些性暗示内容。But it featured 45 smoking scenes—around one every three minutes.但是电影中出现了45个抽烟的镜头—约每三分钟出现一次。Tolerance for violence is higher than it is for sex, perhaps because so much of what passes for entertainment on TV and in cinemas is in fact propaganda relating to the war against the Japanese and the partys bloody rise to power.对暴力内容的容忍度比性要高,这或许是因为许多电视节目和电影实际上都是在宣传反对日本侵略的战争,以及宣扬共产党崛起的血腥历程。Such historical gore is mostly given a clean pass (although some anti-Japanese war shows were reined in for being overly dramatic in 2013).类似的历史剧一般都不会遭到刁难(尽管2013年一些抗日战争剧因为过于戏剧化而被禁播)。A Chinese film released in 2006, Curse of the Golden Flower, was given a rating in America that required those under 17 to be accompanied by an adult because of its violent scenes.2006年上映的电影《满城尽带黄金甲》因为其中的暴力场景,在美国被评级为17岁以下人员需由一名成人陪同才可观看。But these scenes were left uncut when it was screened in China. Viewers were given no warning about them.但是这些画面在中国上映时并没有被删减,观影者没有接到任何警告。On TV The Patriot (Yue Fei), a popular historical drama, commonly features long fights with bloody swords, arrows through the heart and dripping corpses.正在上映的流行历史剧《精忠岳飞》中,经常出现带血的刀剑,箭矢穿心而过,以及正在流血的尸体等长时间打斗的画面。It currently airs on one channel in the early afternoon (others show it at 7.35pm).该剧每天下午早些时候在一个频道中播放(其他频道在晚上7:35播放)。Censors more often pounce if the context is not related to Chinas military heroism.当上映内容与中国的军事英雄主义无关时,审查者们往往都倍加严格。A Japanese anime film, Attack on Titan, was pulled from the Shanghai film festival in June, probably because of its violent content.在今年6月的上海电影节中,一部日本动漫电影《进击的巨人》或许就由于其暴力内容被撤。A childrens cartoon, Pleasant Goat and the Big, Big Wolf, a Chinese Tom and Jerry, was criticised by state media in 2013 for its vulgar language and violent images;儿童动漫《喜羊羊与灰太狼》—中国版的《猫和老鼠》,在2013年时因为其中的粗俗语言和暴力画面被国家媒体抨击;they said that the wolf was assaulted with a frying pan over 9,500 times in his attempt to bring a sheep home for his wife to cook.他们称那只狼为了将羊抓回家让老婆煮被平底锅击中了9500多次。There were no apparent objections to the gender stereotypes.审查中没有明显地对性别的刻板印象提出异议。 译文属译生译世 /201602/428260

Germanys public pensions德国社会抚恤金In the wrong direction方向错误The government is reversing some of its predecessors sensible pension reforms政府正在颠覆之前明智的抚恤金改革政策AS THE country with the European Unions fastest-ageing population, Germany has repeatedly tweaked its pension system to avert a slow-motion demographic disaster. The biggest reform came during Angela Merkels first term as chancellor. Then, as now, her centre-right Christian Democrats were yoked with the centre-left Social Democrats in a “grand coalition”. In 2007 the coalition decided that the normal retirement age should gradually rise from 65 to 67.作为欧盟人口老龄化最快的国家,德国一再调整养老金体系以避免人口增长缓慢带来的人口灾难。最大的改革是在安吉拉·默克尔第一次担任总理期间。而现在,她的中右倾基社党与中左倾社民党联手组成“大联盟”。在2007年联盟决定退休标准年龄应该逐步由65提升到67岁。Mrs Merkel has since preached similar demographic and economic sanity to most of her EU partners, criticising France in particular for straying off the right path. So it comes as something of a shock that Mrs Merkel, now in her third term and running another grand coalition, is reversing course. On the campaign trail for last Septembers election, she promised to raise pensions for older mothers. The Social Democrats countered with promises to let certain workers retire at 63 instead of 65 (not to mention 67). As coalition partners, they will do both at once.默克尔自此便一直向她的大多欧盟伙伴们鼓吹类似人口和经济健康发展的体系,同时特别批评法国偏离了正确的道路。所以默克尔现如今正处于第三个任期中,又在组织另一个大联盟,并且完全颠覆了之前的道路,这多多少少让人感到震惊。在去年九月选举的竞选游说中,她承诺会提高高龄产妇的抚恤金。社民党立刻还击承诺让一些工人在63岁退休而非65岁(期间并未提到67岁)。如今作为联盟伙伴,他们想两项都立时进行。It falls to Andrea Nahles, the labour minister and a Social Democrat who likes to wave the banner of “social justice”, to push the pension package through parliament by the summer so that it can take effect on July 1st. A previous reform let women with children born after 1992 treat three of their stay-at-home maternity years as if they had worked and paid full pension contributions. The new “mother pension” will be for the 8m-9m women (and very few men) who took time off for children before 1992. They will be allowed to count two of those years, instead of just one, as working years for pension purposes.这发生在劳工部长及社民党党员安德里亚·那勒思身上。她热衷于高举“社会公正”的旗帜。她想推动国会在夏天便通过养老金方案。这样新政策就可在7月1日生效。先前的改革让子女于92年之后出生的妇女享有三年离岗休养假,只要他们曾经工作过,并缴纳了全额的抚恤金。而这项新的“母亲年金”将造福于在1992年前为了子女而离职的800万至900万妇女(和极少数男人)。她们将被允许将离职中的两年而非一年当作养老金要计算的工龄。The second part of Mrs Nahless reforms, retirement at 63, is aimed at people who have contributed to the pension system for at least 45 years. But Mrs Nahles wants to count not only years spent working or caring for children or other family members but also periods of short-term unemployment. Separately, she will also boost the pensions of people who cannot work due to disability, and spend more money to rehabilitate them.那勒思改革的第二部分是63岁退休。这是针对那些至少缴纳了45年养老金的群体。但那勒思希望不要仅仅关注工龄或离职照顾孩子或者其他家庭成员的时间,而且要把短期失业的时间也计算在内。另外,她将推动提高那些因残疾而不能工作的人的养老金,并且她将花更多钱用于帮助这些人康复。Individually, these proposals may seem noble-minded. But as a package, the plan is “short-sighted and one-sided,” thinks Axel B?rsch-Supan, a pension adviser at the Munich Centre for the Economics of Ageing. It benefits the older generation, which is aly well looked after, at the expense of younger people who will have to pay higher contributions or taxes. “The financial and psychological costs of the pension at 63 are disastrous,” Mr B?rsch-Supan says. There will no longer be any incentive to keep working longer. In some cases, people may, in effect, retire at 61, register as unemployed for two years, and then draw their full pensions.单独来看,这些提议或许看上去很高尚,但作为一个计划,却是“目光短浅并且片面”,慕尼黑人口老龄化经济学研究中心的抚恤金顾问阿克塞尔·斯克·祖潘如是认为。这个计划是让年轻人缴更多的费用或纳更多的税使已经受到了良好照顾的老年人受益。“63岁为退休年龄让年金体系在金钱和社会心理方面都难以维系。”斯克·祖潘说。因此人们也没有什么动力在这个年纪继续工作。有的人事实上在61岁就退休了,登记为失业状态,两年之后便可以领取他们的抚恤金了。Criticism of the pension changes straddles German politics. Social Democrats who were involved in previous reforms, such as Franz Müntefering, a former party boss, are against. So are members of the business-friendly wing of Mrs Merkels own party. Employers are opposed, because they face labour shortages and are trying to persuade older workers to stay in their jobs longer, not leave sooner. Even the churches are critical, on the grounds that the plan violates “generational justice”. Germanys EU partners are especially upset. Olli Rehn, the European economics commissioner, has said that the commission may even sue Germany if it goes ahead with the plans.德国政坛无论哪个派别都对这样的年金体系改革批评有加。曾参与了之前改革的社民党党员比如前任主席弗朗茨·明特费林就提出了反对。默克尔自己党派的亲商派也表示反对。雇主们反对是因为他们面临劳工短缺,因此正试图力劝老工人们留下工作尽可能久一些,而非尽早离开。甚至教会也发出了批评声,因为这个计划违反了“世代公正”。德国的欧盟伙伴尤其泄气。欧盟经济专员奥利·雷恩曾说过如果德国率先推行类似计划这些计划,那么委员会甚至可能起诉德国。It is not only the details of the measures that are disturbing but also the overall signal they send, argues Thomas Straubhaar, director of the Hamburg Institute of International Economics. Germanys “sandwich generation”—those in their 30s and 40s who must pay ever more to support their elders and will get ever less in their own old age—will sulk and might even emigrate. The pension package, he says, is testimony only to “the power of the grey hairs”, as the grand coalition cynically doles out political gifts to a few favoured groups of voters.令人烦扰的不仅仅是这些措施的细节,还有改革者所发出的整体信号,汉堡国际经济研究所主任托马斯·斯特劳伯哈尔争论到。德国的“三明治一代”在三四十岁是必须花费更多来照顾他们的老一辈,但在他们自己老了之后却只会得到的更少,这使他们感到气愤甚至会移民国外。托马斯称,抚恤金计划只是“老人掌权”的见,不无讽刺的是,这正如大联盟向其偏爱的少数选民提供政治好处一般。译者:邵夏沁 校对:王化起,周晓婷 译文属译生译世 /201510/402868Volkswagen has reportedly reached a settlement with the ed States government over charges that it gave its diesel vehicles software to cheat federal emissions tests. 据报道大众与美国政府达成一项协议,关于控告其在柴油车使用软件欺骗联邦的排放测试。According to The Associated Press, the company will spend just over billion to compensate U.S. owners of the vehicles and German media says that each owner of an affected diesel car will be paid ,000. 据美联社报道,大众将花费超过10亿美元来补偿美国车主,德国媒体表示每位受影响的柴油车主将获得5,000美元。The AP adds in its report that negotiations about fixing the cars are currently ongoing. 美联社在报道中补充道,关于修理汽车的谈判正在进行中。Earlier this week, lawyers for thousands of Volkswagen owners in the U.S. asked a federal judge in California to order a settlement if Volkswagen couldn’t agree to a fix by Thursday.本周早些时候,美国数千名大众车主的律师要求加利福尼亚的一名联邦法官安排方案,如果到周四大众不同意解决。译文属。201604/438505

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