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Science and technology科学技术Searching for aliens寻找外星人The wow factor防止再次意外A new citizen-science project will improve the chances of finding ET一个新的平民科学项目可以增大找到地外智慧的机会EVER since 1993, when funding from Americas space agency, NASA, was cut, the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, which scans the sky looking for radio signals from intelligent aliens, has been inventive in its methods.自从1993年,寻找地外智慧在失去了美国航天局的资助后,开辟了一个新的的研究途径。In particular, it was one of the pioneers of the field of citizen science, in which interested amateurs are recruited to help professionals crunch data.具体来说,这个新途径是平民科学的先驱之一,它邀请感兴趣的外行人来帮助专家处理海量数据。In 1999 it started SETIhome, an application that uses spare processing power on volunteers computers to sift the information generated by its radio telescopes.1999年,在家寻找地外智慧项目启动了,它通过一个应用程序利用志愿者的电脑上闲置的计算资源来筛选来自射频望远镜的信息。These days, SETIhome boasts more than 1m users.今天,在家寻找地外智慧已经号称拥有超过100万的用户。On February 29th the SETI Institute launched another citizen-science project.2月29号,寻找地外智慧协会启动了一个新的平民科学项目。This time, though, its researchers are less interested in the digital computers on volunteers desks than in the biological ones between their ears.这次,研究人员们更加感兴趣的是志愿者的双眼,而不是他们桌上的计算机。实时寻找地外智慧,SETILive, as the project is called, hopes to use the pattern-recognition capabilities of brains to distinguish interesting signals from the cacophony of interference generated by the denizens of planet Earth—and to do so in real time.就像它的名称所说,它希望利用我们大脑的模式识别能力来辨认出夹杂在由地球原住民产生的信号中的有趣信号,实时地。The basic idea behind SETI is to look for distinctive radio-frequency emissions that might come from advanced aliens rather than natural sources like stars.寻找地外智慧的基本想法是寻找来自高级地外生命而不是其他自然来源如恒星的射频信号。To do this, the SETI Institute uses an instrument called the Allen Telescope Array—a group of 42 small radio-telescope dishes in California, partly paid for by the eponymous co-founder of Microsoft.其协会依靠的工具是坐落在加州的艾伦望远镜阵列,它由42个小的射频望远镜组成,因为微软的共同创始人提供了部分资金而得名。Unfortunately, some parts of the radio spectrum are full of signals created by Earthlings, rather than aliens.不幸的是,来自地球居民而不是外星人的信号挤满了射频频谱的一部分。Everything from passing satellites and tumbling space junk to ground-based radar and even the ignition systems of nearby cars can generate spurious radio waves that confuse the software.各种各样的来源产生了欺骗性的信号迷惑了相关软件,这些来源包括划过天空的卫星和翻滚的太空垃圾,地面上的雷达甚至是附近汽车的点火系统。Until now, the project has dealt with that by ignoring the more crowded bits of the spectrum.目前,项目只能避开这些拥挤的频段。But SETILive will bring them into play.但是实时寻找地外智慧就可以把这些被迫忽略的频段拿来一起分析。It will do so by feeding pictorial representations of data from these noisy chunks of the spectrum to its users in the hope that they will be able to filter out the noise and spot potentially interesting signals buried behind the radio clutter from Earth.它把在这些充满噪声的拥挤频段内的信息转换成图像发送给用户,希望他们能够在这些噪音中发现潜在特别的信号。Those interesting signals will not necessarily have come from alien civilisations, says Chris Lintott,这些特别的信号不一定就来自外星文明。Chris Lintott说。an astrophysicist at Oxford University who helps to run Zooniverse, a citizen-science website that manages several projects, including SETILive.他是牛津大学的天文物理学家,But even if they do not, some new astronomical phenomena may be discovered by the project. And as the various sources of interference become better characterised, the results will be fed back into the automated-search algorithms, improving their ability to deal with Earth-generated noise.帮助运作一个管理了包括实时寻找地外智慧在内的一些项目的平民科学网站-宇宙动物园。Other citizen-science projects aly use the superior pattern-recognition capabilities of human wetware, but SETILive is different from these in one important way.其他一些平民科学项目已经在利用人类自身湿件的模式识别能力了,但是实时寻找地外智慧在一个重要方面与它们都不同。Rather than having its users pore at leisure over stored data, aliens are hunted on the fly.外星人是被即时捕捉到的,而不是用户从容地凝视那些储存好了的数据。Users logging on to the projects website view information that is hot from the Allen Array.用户登录项目网站后看到的信息是刚刚从艾伦望远镜阵列传来的。They have to work quickly, though.他们还必须看得快些,Every 90 seconds, the array switches to looking at a different star, or a different frequency range, and a new image is generated.因为每隔90秒望远镜阵列就会切换观测另外一个星体或者一个不同的频段,一幅新的信息转换成的图像就会显示出来。If, however, the humans do spot something interesting, the array can be told within three minutes to switch back to observing the star or range in question, to see if the signal is still there.如果万一有人确实看到了一些特别的信息,望远镜阵列会在3分钟之内切换回那个特定的星体或者频段,看看信号还是否在那。That is a big advantage, says Dr Lintott.Lintott士说这是一个很大的优势。Volunteers working on SETIhome have found plenty of interesting signals,在家寻找地外智慧的志愿者们就发现过很多有趣的信号,but because the data they analyse are often months old, those signals have usually vanished by the time anyone gets around to checking up on them.但是因为那些数据大多是几个月之前的,当研究人员有机会回头查看时通常它们都已经消失了。The most famous example of such delayed discovery, though it long predates the start of SETIhome, is the so-called Wow! signal.这类延迟事件最出名的一次,尽管早在在家寻找地外智慧启动之前,是一个被称为Wow!的信号。This signal, which looked exactly like the sort of thing astronomers had theorised aliens might use to get in touch was spotted in telescope printouts in 1977.1977年,这个信号在一个望远镜输出文件中被发现了,它完全符合天文学家理论预测的外星人用来和外界联系的特征。It was a powerful, finely tuned broadcast at the most important natural frequency for radio astronomers—the one generated by the flipping spin of the electron in a hydrogen atom.这个信号不仅强烈,而且精确地在射频天文学中最重要的自然频率上发射出来。But by the time astronomers had noticed it and set their instruments up to double-check, the signal had vanished.但是等到天文学家发现并且使用仪器进行二次确认的时候它已经消失了。If a second Wow! signal were discovered by SETILive, astronomers could focus on it almost immediately.如果第二个Wow!信号被实时寻找地外智慧发现,天文学家就可以几乎立即对准它。First contact with aliens, then, might take place not in a lab full of computers but late one night in a suburban bedroom. There could be a film in that.第一次与外星人的接触,说不定就不是发生在满是电脑的实验室里,而是深夜在一个城郊住宅区的卧室中。果真如此就可以拍一部电影了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201307/246413

I really like May, because things are calming down, the sharks are gone.我很喜欢5月,因为万物都很平静。鲨鱼全走了。And the males and females actually have some nice interactions.雌雄海豚在一起合作。The males arent harassing the females like they do, 6 to 8 months earlier.每年的6,7,8月份雄海豚不可以骚扰雌海豚。With the big sharks finally gone, Samu has survived the most dangerous first moths of his life.鲨鱼走了,莎木最大的威胁消失了。Seeing Samu growing up so strong and independent bodes well for his future.莎木长得很强壮,未来独立的生活会很不错。Hes aly showing all the signs of becoming one of the Bays top males.它有成为鲨鱼湾最优秀的雄性海豚的潜质。But one day, he too, will have to leave the loving companionship of the Beachies.但总有一天,它也会离开比奇家庭的怀抱。At 33 years old, Pucks long reign of the Beachies will soon come to an end.帕克33岁了,它在比奇家庭的领导地位会很快结束。This wonderful dolphin has taught Janet more than any other.这只优秀的海豚教会了珍妮特很多。A wise and gentle mother, Puck showed her children how to survive in the dangerous waters of Shark Bay.这位聪明有礼貌的海豚妈妈教会了孩子们在危险的鲨鱼湾求生。And showing us the richness of dolphin family lives, if we just choose to look beneath the surface.也给我们留下了海豚家庭生活的宝贵资料。201407/309552

Science and technology科学技术The Arctic北极海域Tequila sunset龙舌兰日落Global warming may make the northernmost ocean less productive, not more so全球变暖对北极海域生产力的负面影响ON SEPTEMBER 16th 2012, at the height of the summer melt, the Arctic Oceans ice sheet had shrunk to an area of 3.41m square kilometres, half what it was in 1979.2012年9月16日,随着夏日的深入,北冰洋的冰原面积缩减到341万平方公里,该数字仅为1979年同期面积的二分之一。And its volume had shrunk faster still, to a quarter of what it was in 1979, for the sheet is getting thinner as well as smaller.同时,就冰原体积而言,目前北极冰原的体积仅为1979年的四分之一,其融化速度之快可想而知。如今的北极地区,不仅冰原的面积在减少,其体积也在缩小。One culprit is global warming, which is fiercer at the poles than elsewhere.而这一现象的罪魁祸首便是全球变暖。同时,相比于其他海域而言,全球变暖对两极地区的冲击尤为明显。The worlds average temperature in 2012 was nearly 0.5C above the average for 1951-80.与1951-1980年相比,2012年全球均温上涨了0.5,In the Arctic, it was up almost 2C.其中仅北极地区便上涨了2。This sudden warming is like the peeling back of a lid to reveal a new ocean underneath.就如同是掀开了某个锅盖后发现了一片沸腾的海洋一般,全球温度骤然上升。That prospect is sping alarm and excitement.全球变暖加剧的前景不仅使人深感担忧,也使人倍觉振奋。Though most of the excitement has been about oil and gas, and the opening of sea routes between the Atlantic and the Pacific, some people hope for a fishing bonanza, too, as warmth and light bring ecological renewal to what is now an icy desert.尽管大多数的掌声来自油气开发商与大西洋-太平洋新航道拥护者,然而由于全球变暖给这片冰雪荒原带来了温暖与阳光,为其生态环境注入了新的元素,不少人也梦想着在这里靠发一笔横财,But they may be disappointed.只是后者很可能会抱憾而归。At the moment, the waters around the Arctic account for a fifth of the worlds catch.目前,北极地区占有全球总水量的五分之一。There are few fish, however, under the ice itself.然而在这厚厚的冰层下,却鲜有鱼类问津。A fishing bonanza would require big ecological change.在北极生态系统完全改变之前,或许不是当地的最佳致富之道。Arctic Frontiers, a conference organised at the University of Tromso in January, looked at how warming will change the ecology, to estimate whether it will bring one about.1月,挪威特罗姆瑟大学召开“北极边境”会议,专门研究全球变暖对已有生态环境的影响,以及预估该现象是否会促进生成一个新的生态环境。The consensus was that it wont—not because the Arctic will change too little, but because it will change too much.会上,与会代表达成共识:北极海域将不会形成新的生态环境,这并不是因为北极的改变不足挂齿,恰恰相反,而是因为这里将会发生翻天覆地的变化。Change and decay变化与衰退At first sight, this is counterintuitive.乍读此言,不免觉得有些互相矛盾。As the ice melts, more light can reach the water, and that means more photosynthesis by marine algae.然而随着冰层进一步融化,大量阳光直射海面,海水中藻类植物的光合作用将会大大增强。In the past, algae began to grow under the ice sheet in May and continued to do so until late September.过去,冰原下的海藻于每年五月开始生长,至九月末结束,Now, such growth starts in mid-March and continues until October.但现在海藻的生长期已延长为每年三月中旬至十月。These ice algae, attached to the sheet itself, account for half the mass of living things in Arctic waters.在所有北极海洋生物中,约半数生物为此类附着在冰原下方的冰藻,Much of the rest is unattached algae, known as phytoplankton, and tiny animals, known as zooplankton.另外还有部分浮游植物及浮游动物,Both sorts of plankton support, directly or indirectly, the fish and mammals that live in the Arctic Ocean.而这两类浮游生物便是北极地区鱼类及哺乳动物直接或间接的养料来源。And the plankton, too, are flourishing thanks to global warming.此外,全球变暖也使得此类浮游生物的数量激增:The Arctic phytoplankton bloom, which used to run from June to September, now runs from April to September.北极浮游植物生长期已经由过去的六至九月延长到了四至九月。The upshot is more plankton, farther north.于是,随着浮游生物进一步向北部蔓延,That attracts more fish.更多鱼类被吸引至此。In 2000 Atlantic cod were caught throughout the Barents Sea.2000年,巴伦海南北遍布大西洋鳕鱼;By 2012 their distribution was skewed towards the northern part of that sea.2012年,大西洋鳕鱼活动范围北移至巴伦海北部。Stocks of capelin used to be concentrated south of Svalbard, at latitude 75N.同时,曾主要分布于北纬75斯瓦尔巴群岛海域的capelin,In 2012 this had moved to 78N.于2012年被发现已迁移至北纬78附近,Some found their way as far up as 80N.部分甚至已迁徙到北纬80附近海域。Which all sounds most promising. But many researchers think it will not continue.尽管种种迹象表明在此地致富的前景颇为乐观,然而许多学者却持不同意见。First, the central Arctic is too deep for some important species, such as the polar cod.首先,北冰洋中部海水过深,不利于极地鳕鱼等重要物种的生存。Young polar cod are pelagic, meaning they live at or near the surface.极地鳕鱼与大西洋鳕鱼同属,但前者活动范围较后者更为偏北。Those one or more years old are benthic, meaning they live near the bottom.此外,极地鳕鱼的幼鱼为海面鱼,这些幼鱼仅在海面附近活动;一岁及以上的极地鱼为深海鱼,这些深海鱼仅生活在类似于福尔海域的海底。In the Beaufort that bottom is 200 metres down.鉴于福尔海的深度为200米,In the central Arctic it descends to about 4,000 metres, which is too deep for polar cod to survive.而北冰洋中部深度约为4000米,因此极地鳕鱼根本无法在北极地区生存。A second reason why there may be no bonanza is acidification of the ocean.其次,北冰洋的酸化现象也是此地不宜鱼类生存的重要原因。When water absorbs carbon dioxide, it produces carbonic acid. More CO?水吸收二氧化碳后会释放出碳酸,means oceans everywhere are becoming more acidic, but the phenomenon is particularly marked at high latitudes because cold water absorbs CO? more ily than warm water does.因此,随着二氧化碳排放量增加,海水酸度也会随之升高。另外,因为冷水比热水更易吸收二氧化碳,所以这种现象在高纬度地区尤为明显。The retreat of the ice also exposes ever more sea to do the absorbing.于是,冰原面积的锐减也意味着更多的低温洋面将会暴露在空气之中,吸收大量的二氧化碳。Cruises by the ed States Geological Survey and the University of South Florida over the past three years have found rising carbonic-acid levels north of Alaska.在过去的三年里,美国地质调查局与南佛罗里达大学多次巡航此地进行调研,调研结果表明:阿拉斯加北部海域的碳酸值显著上升,并且该海域有机物的外壳中霰石含量不足。They have also discovered that the shells of many organisms in the area are short of aragonite, a form of calcium carbonate that gives them strength, but whose formation acid discourages.霰石为碳酸钙的一种形式,它不仅为有机物外壳提供撑,而且其形成过程能够降低酸性物质含量。Weaker shells means fewer shelled organisms and less food for fish.外壳硬度的降低则说明该海域带壳有机物及鱼类食物的数量均大大减少。The most important reason, though, for thinking that global warming will not produce an Arctic feeding frenzy is that it may increase ocean stratification.然而,全球变暖无法为北极地区带来大量鱼类养料的真正原因在于海水分层现象的加剧。This is the tendency of seawater to separate into layers, because fresh water is lighter than salt and cold water heavier than warm.由于淡水质量小于海水,而冷水质量大于热水,水温的上升会导致海水进一步分层。The more stratified water is, the less nutrients in it move around.同时,海水分层现越严重,则越不利于海水内部营养物质的流动。Most free-swimming sea creatures are pelagic.大多数海洋游泳生物均为海面生物。Algae need light, so must live near the surface—as must the zooplankton and other animals that need the phytoplankton.海藻需要阳光,因此海藻必须生活在海面附近,从而依靠海藻等浮游植物生存的浮游动物也必须在海面区域活动。When they die, all these organisms sink to the bottom, where they become food for benthic creatures.这类生物死亡后,其有机体沉入海底,变为海底生物的养料。Once they have been consumed their component molecules, including nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates and iron, are stuck in Davy Joness locker.当有机体的硝酸盐、磷酸盐、铁以及其他营养成分均被其他生物吸收后,他们便永远地沉在了海底。For the surface to be productive, the locker must be opened and the nutrients lifted back up, so that they can feed the growth of phytoplankton.因此,如果海底为一个封闭的水层,则海底营养物质将无法上升到水面,从而也无法为浮游植物等其他水面生物提供其生长所需的养料。Walking the plankton浮游生物的流失One of the most important ways this happens is by upwellings of water from the bottom—great churning columns caused by the collision of cold and temperate waters.上升流是海底营养物质上浮至水面的重要方式。Two of the most important are in the Arctic: south of Greenland on the Atlantic side and south of the Bering Strait on the Pacific side.北极地区具有全球最著名的几大上升流之二:大西洋侧南格陵兰上升流及太平洋侧白令海峡上升流。Nitrates are abundant at the surface in both places, which is why they are among the worlds richest fishing grounds.这两个海域富有硝酸盐,这便是这些地区以业著名的原因。There are few upwellings in the tropics, which are thus nutrient-poor.由于热带海域则几乎没有上升流,因此这些海域通常缺乏养分。Stratification threatens this recycling system by suppressing the vertical movement of water.然而,海水分层会妨碍海水的垂直交换运动,从而威胁海洋自身的循环系统。And global warming encourages stratification because it turns the ice into a layer of fresh water that sits on the surface.全球变暖现象使得海面冰层融化,而融化后的淡水则只能漂浮在海面。Imagine the ocean as a Tequila sunrise sitting on a warm bar.这就好像是一杯放在暖气上的龙舌兰日落鸡尾酒,The ice cubes at the top are melting away and the orange juice is sinking to the bottom.上层的冰块在融化,而橙汁全部沉淀在杯底。At the conference, a paper by Jean-éric Tremblay and Marcel Babin of Laval University, in Quebec, described the effect by reporting the density difference of water at the surface and at a depth of 100 metres in different oceans.“北极边境”会上,Jean-éric Tremblay与拉瓦尔大学的Marcel Babin带来了他们的研究性论文成果。This density difference is an index of ocean stratification.该论文描述了不同海洋中洋面海水与100米深处海水的密度差别及其影响,而正是这一密度差别决定着海水的分层情况。Parts of the Arctic seem to be getting badly stratified.如图所示,北极地区部分海域已经出现了明显的分层现象。In winter, there is almost no density difference in the North Atlantic and the Barents Sea—as you would expect given the upwelling there.冬季,北大西洋与巴伦海之间几乎没有任何密度差别—即便前者本应受到上升流的影响。But in summer, the northern part of the Barents Sea is even more stratified than the tropical Atlantic and Pacific.夏季,巴伦海北部的分层现象比大西洋及太平洋热带海域更为明显。And the Beaufort Seas stratification is high in both summer and winter.另外,波弗特海常年存在严重的分层现象。Dr Tremblay concludes that the replenishment of nutrients is aly limited by stratification, especially at high latitudes, and that global warming will make things worse.Tremblay士认为,海水分层现象已经对海洋营养物质的循环补给非常不利,全球变暖则会雪上加霜,使该现象加剧恶化。For Arctic productivity, the consequences are likely to be dire.就北极地区的生产力而言,其前景更是不容乐观。Paul Wassmann of the University of Tromso looked at the production of organic matter by algae in different parts of the European Arctic, and used a climate model to predict the future.来自特罗姆瑟大学的Paul Wassmann在看过欧洲北极海域不同地区海藻生成的有机物质数量之后,用气候模型预测了该地区的未来走势:The area is divided into five economic zones.北极地区将会分化为五个经济区。By 2050, according to the model, primary production is likely to have fallen in three of them, to be flat in one and to rise only in the Russian zone.根据该模型的预测,至2050年,在这五个经济区中,三个经济区将会完全衰落,一个经济区将出现生产停滞,而最后一个经济区—俄罗斯区会成为唯一一个生产力保持增势的海域。Primary production is measured as the weight of carbon fixed by photosynthesis per square metre of the Earths surface.初级生产的多少根据地球表面每平方米光合作用所生成的碳的质量来决定。At the moment, in the most productive area of the Arctic, the Norwegian Sea, that figure is 142 grams a square metre a year.目前,北极地区生产力最高的海域挪威海的初级生产量约为每年142克/平方米,The model predicts this will fall to 128 grams.然而该模型表示这一数值将会下降至128克/平方米。And by 2100, according to the model, things will be worse.该模型还预测,至2100年,以上现象将会进一步恶化,By then, four of the five zones will have experienced a loss in primary production. Only Russia will benefit.而且届时除俄罗斯经济区外,另外四个经济区的初级生产值将会大大降低。A warming Arctic will not, in other words, be full of fish. It will simply be an ice-free version of the desert it aly is.换言之,升温后的北极地区不会摇身变为天然渔场。北极地区仍旧只是一片荒漠,无非是少了冰原而已。 /201312/269629

  

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  Asian business亚洲商业A world to conquer征世界Asian business is reforming. Its emerging multinationals will change the way we all live亚洲商业正在改革,其新兴的跨国公司将改变我们的生活BUSINESS power follows economic power. In the 1920s British firms owned 40% of the global stock of foreign direct investment. By 1967 America was top dog, with a 50% share. Behind those figures lie cultural revolutions. The British sp the telegraph and trains in Latin America. American firms sold a vision of the good life, honed by Hollywood and advertising. Kelloggs changed what the rich world ate for breakfast, and Kodak how it remembered holidays. The next corporate revolution, as we describe in our special report this week, is happening in Asia. This too will change how the world lives.商业能力紧随经济实力。1920年代,英国公司拥有40%的全球海外直接投资股票。截至1967年,美国以50%的市场份额雄霸世界。这些数字的背后是文化革命。英国将电报机和铁路传至拉丁美洲。美国公司则通过好莱坞和广告营造了一副美好生活的憧憬。氏公司改变了发达国家人们桌上的早餐,柯达则定格了人们对于假期的美好回忆。下一场公司革命,就如同我们在本周的特别报道中描述的一样,将发生在亚洲。这也同样会改变我们生活的世界。Arrested development发展受阻Asian capitalism has brawn. The continents share of global GDP has risen from a fifth to 28% since 1984. It is the worlds factory, a diverse region of rivals bound together by supply chains. But it lacks brains and global savvy. Asia smelts 76% of the worlds iron and emits 44% of its pollution, but hosts only a tenth of its most valuable brands and venture-capital activity. Its multinationals punch below their weight, owning 17% of the worlds foreign direct investment. Wealthy Japan and South Korea have a cast of superstars, such as Toyota and Samsung. But few other firms command the world stage.亚洲资本强劲有力。亚洲大陆占全球GDP的份额自1984年以来已经增长了五分之一,至28%。 这里是世界工厂,由供应链连结起来的竞争多元化的地区。但是它“力大无脑”,缺乏对全球市场的领悟能力。亚洲熔炼了76%的世界钢铁并排放了44%的污染物,但是只掌握了十分之一最有价值的品牌和风险资本活动。这里,跨国公司的实力与其规模并不相称,只拥有世界17%的外国直接投资。富裕的日本和韩国有众多的明星企业,例如丰田和三星。但是,其他能够在世界舞台上占领一席之地的公司却是屈指可数。That is because Asian capitalism has been too cosy. In the boom between 2002 and 2010 easy profits were made at home—growth was fast and labour and credit cheap. Two-thirds of big Asian firms are state-controlled or “business houses” (often family-run). These incumbents tend to be chummy with the government and get cheap land and loans. Half of all billionaire wealth in Asia has been made in sectors, such as property, that are prone to cronyism, versus 15% in the West. Outside Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, innovation has been neglected. Mahindra amp; Mahindra and Great Wall, car champions from India and China, have a combined research-and-development (Ramp;D) budget that is 3% of Volkswagens.这是因为亚洲的资本主义是“温室里的花朵”。从2002到2010年,唾手可得的利润在家里就能轻松赚到——快速的增长以及廉价劳动力和信贷。三分之二的亚洲大公司都是国有的或者家族式经营的商号。它们都与政府有着密切的关系,能够得到廉价的土地和贷款。亚洲近半数的亿万富豪都是从政府有关部门发家的,例如极易产生裙带关系的房地产业,相比之下在西方只占15%。除了日本、台湾和南韩之外,创新都遭到了忽视。马恒达和长城这两个印度和中国的汽车业龙头,其研究开发经费加起来也不过是大众汽车的3%。For Western firms, Asias shortcomings have been a relief. The iPhone shows why: although it is made by the hands of Chinese workers, it is the brains behind it, at Apple and at high-tech component-makers in the rich world, that take nearly all the profits. Now, however, the rules that have governed Asian capitalism for the past two decades are changing. Asian firms are having to become brainier, more nimble and more global.对于西方公司来说,亚洲的短板令他们从中得利。iPhone就是和很好的例子:尽管都是出自中国工人的双手,但从中赚取几乎全部利润的“大脑”,是背后的苹果公司和发达国家的高科技元件市场。然而,这个曾经在过去二十年里管理着亚洲资本的游戏规则正在改变。亚洲企业正在变成更为灵活和全球化的“大脑”。The immediate motivation is underperformance: growth has slowed, and Asian shares have lagged American ones by 40% in the past three years. Three deeper trends are also at work. First, labour costs are rising, not least in China, and East Asias workforce is ageing. Second, Asias middle class is becoming more demanding. They are no longer satisfied with fake Louis Vuitton handbags; they want clean air, safe food and more leisure, and are madly in love with the internet. Third, competition has intensified from Western multinationals, which have invested trillion in Asia. They also now use the same cheapish labour, and they generally have much more sophisticated supply chains, brands and Ramp;D.最直接的动力是表现不佳:增长在减缓,在过去的3年里,亚洲的份额滞后于美国40%。三个更深层次的趋势正在起作用。首先,劳动力成本在上升,尤其是在中国,东亚的劳动力正在面临老龄化。其次,亚洲中产阶级的需求正在变高。他们不再仅仅满足于山寨LV手包,他们想要干净的空气、安全的食品和更多的休闲,同时也越来越迷恋网络世界。第三,来自西方跨国公司的竞争愈发激烈,他们已经在亚洲投资超过2万亿美元。他们现在也有相对廉价的劳动力,除此之外他们大都还拥有成熟的供应链、品牌和研发。With their home markets no longer quite so safe, Asian firms are adapting—and becoming stronger. In response to rising wages, production (of clothes, for example) is shifting from China to South-East Asia and Africa, led by Japanese firms which are also worried about a war with the Middle Kingdom. Chinese firms such as Haier, which makes fridges, plan to automate factories and get into cleverer products. And as the Chinese push upmarket, the Koreans are redoubling efforts to stay ahead. Samsungs spending on Ramp;D rose by 24% in 2013. If they get their act together, India and Indonesia, Asias bumbling giants, will attract lots of factory jobs. Their best firms are also getting brainier. Once dismissed as “body shops”, Indias IT-outsourcing firms are now leaders in big data.亚洲企业的本土市场不再是高枕无忧,所以他们也在适应——同时也在变强。由于上升的工资成本,产品生产(例如装)正在从中国转到东南亚和非洲,日本公司由于担心与中国将爆发战争所以首先采取了这种措施。中国公司例如生产冰箱的海尔,计划加强工厂自动化并生产更智能的产品。随着中国高端市场的发展,韩国正竭力保持其领先地位。三星在2013年的研发经费增长了24%。如果印度和印尼能共同进退,这两个笨手笨脚的亚洲巨人将会吸引大量的工厂就业。他们中最好的公司也正变成“大脑”。曾经被忽略为代工车间的印度IT外包公司现在已经成为大数据的领军者。Rising consumer aspirations are helping internet firms disrupt traditional industries. Alibaba, a Chinese internet giant, is expanding into banking, telecoms and logistics. Analysts think it might be worth 0 billion, more than Chinas steel industry. Chinas drive to reform its state-owned firms is meant to make them more responsive to customers. Xi Guohua, the boss of China Mobile, plans to give shares to his staff. Across Asia demand for health care is likely to create a whole new generation of companies—the industry comprises only 4% of the regions stockmarket, compared with 12% in the rich world.消费者日益增长的需求意愿正帮助互联网企业打破行业传统。阿里巴巴作为一个中国互联网企业巨头,已经将业务扩张到业、电信业和物流业。分析师认为其市值可能达到1500亿美元,超过了中国钢铁行业总和。中国实施国企改革的决心意味着国企要更多的回应消费者的需求。中国移动董事长奚国华计划让自己的员工持有本企业的股份。纵观亚洲,对于医疗保健的需求很有可能会创造一批全新的公司——该行业的份额只占地区股票市场的4%,而在发达国家则占12%。In order to challenge foreign rivals, Asian firms are globalising, following the example of Samsung and Toyota. Lenovo, a thriving Chinese computer firm, has Western-style governance and many foreign staff. Huawei has overtaken Ericsson in telecoms equipment. Indias Sun Pharma is now one of the worlds biggest generic-drugs firms. Tencent, Chinas Facebook, has hired the footballer Lionel Messi to advertise its services abroad. Sprawling business houses are evolving into focused multinationals. Tata Sons is now a superb IT firm and luxury-car maker tied to a ragbag of Indian assets.为了应对国外竞争对手,亚洲公司(例如三星和丰田)正在全球化。作为一家繁荣兴旺的中国计算机企业,联想拥有西式的管理和众多外籍员工。华为在电信设备方面也超越了爱立信公司。印度的太阳药业现在已经跻身为全球最大的非注册商标类药品公司之一。腾讯是中国版的facebook,聘任足球明星莱昂内尔·梅西为其务进行海外宣传。粗放式发展的商业模式已经进化成集中而专业的跨国企业。塔塔之子公司这家优秀的IT公司和豪华汽车制造商,已经成为印度资产大杂烩中的一员。Cereal killers麦片杀手Asian business needs to do much more. Big firms are spending 50% more on Ramp;D than five years ago, but must get better at breakthrough innovations. Conglomerates must focus on a few areas where they can achieve global scale. Governments can do their bit, by freeing state firms from meddling and ensuring that powerful incumbents do not stifle entrepreneurs.亚洲商业前路依然漫长。跟5年前相比,大公司的研发开增加了50%,但仍需突破性的创新。企业集团需要集中优势到某一些领域并做大到国际规模。政府能帮忙的地方就是解放国企、停止插手并确保大权在握的现任领导不会扼杀企业的发展。Western firms should pay attention. In some industries—aircraft manufacturing, for example—the barriers to entry are still immense, but in other sectors brands and technology will no longer be a shield from emerging Asian competition. The threat to low-paid Western jobs may recede. Haiers Chinese workers are paid 25% of what its American workers get, up from 5% in 2000. Instead it may be copywriters, scientists and designers who feel the chill of competition from the East.西方企业需要注意。某些行业(例如航空制造业)的准入门槛仍然很高,但在其他领域,品牌和科技不再是阻挡新兴亚洲竞争对手的避风港。西方国家低收入工作所面临的威胁可能会减少。海尔中国工人的收入是美国工人的25%,自2000年以来增加了5%。相反的,广告文案、科学家和设计师这些人更有可能需要面对来自来亚洲的竞争。History suggests consumers will adapt fast. In 20 years, miracle cures for the old will come from Japan, the best web apps from India and couture from China. And cornflakes, once a cutting-edge food, will be rivalled by congee and dosas, sold in boxes by a global brand. Asian capitalism will change the world—even, maybe, what it has for breakfast.历史明,消费者需要迅速适应新情况。在未来20年,治愈老人的医疗奇迹将发生在日本,最好的网络应用程序来自印度,而高级时装则来自中国。玉米片这个一度被认为是高科技的食品,将被装在盒子里、贴着全球品牌的稀饭和印度薄饼所取代。亚洲资本将改变世界——甚至有可能是桌上的早餐。 /201406/306687

  Science and technology科学技术Health indicators健康指标On the face of it从表面判断More evidence that symmetrical features indicate good health更多据表明对称容貌显示身体健康BEAUTY may be in the eye of the beholder, but a symmetricalface is usually a big help.情人眼里出西施,但对称的容貌通常有助于美感。In contrast, asymmetry is often associated with malignance.相反,非对称通常与丑恶相联。Biologists have long speculated why this is.生物学家长期思考为什么会出现这种情况。In theory, evolution provides a logical answer: unfit individuals are less likely than fitter folk to be able to maintain the symmetrical development of their bodies when exposed to stress and disease.就理论上而言,进化论就是其逻辑。在面临压力与疾病时,非健康者可能不如健康者能保持自身的对称发展。In other words, many parts of the body are supposed to be symmetrical, so any deviation from perfect symmetry indicates that an animal has not been able to grow as intended.换句话说,身体的许多部位本是对称的,那么,从完美对称变为非对称表明身体已不可能按正常发展。As an animal is unlikely to want to mix its genes with an unfit or diseased partner, evolution selects symmetry as an attractive trait.由于健康者不大可能愿意其基因与非健康/患病者的相结合,进化论便选择对称作为一个有吸引力的特征。Whether asymmetry and poor health or fitness really go hand in hand has not been easy to prove.很难明非对称者是否与非健康或健康真正相关联。Research on this in humans causes ethical problems and can raise hackles.关于人类这个问题的研究导致种簇问题,造成愤怒。Now a new study conducted with macaque monkeys hints that there is indeed a connection.现在,以猕猴为例的一项新的研究表明他们的确有关联。Previous studies with macaques have demonstrated that the animals will gaze longer at symmetrical faces than they do at asymmetric ones, which could be interpreted as the monkeys finding such faces more attractive.先前有关猕猴的研究实验表明,相比非对称性猕猴,猕猴愿意花更多长凝视拥有对称性容貌的猕猴,这可能理解为猕猴发现那些具有对称性容貌的具有更多吸引力。The results of these studies have led researchers to believe that the monkeys have a preference for symmetry just as humans do.研究结果使得研究者相信猕猴与人类一样偏爱对称性容貌者。However, a clear connection between health and symmetry had not been made.然而,健康与对称性的关联还未得到确切的明。Fascinated by this question, Anthony Little of the University of Stirling in Scotland and Annika Paukner of the National Institutes of Health in America established a new study with 93 female macaque monkeys.受这个问题的困扰,苏格兰斯特林大学的安东尼.里特与美国国立卫生研究院的安妮卡.波克恩一起对93只猕猴进行一项新的研究。The monkeys came from three different groups and had been raised in some degree of captivity.这些猕猴来自三个不同群组,受到不同程度的圈养。All of the monkeys, between the ages of five and 20, were photographed, face forward.所有这些猕猴年龄都在5岁-20岁,他们面朝前面一起接受拍照。Dr Little and his colleagues analysed facial symmetry using a computer to measure the distance of various features, like the edges of the nostrils, lips and eyes, from a line drawn down the centre of the monkeys face.一条中间直线划分猕狒面部,里特士和他的同事使用电脑测量不同器官的两边距离,包括鼻孔,嘴唇,眼睛。These distances were then compared and any differences between them were added to an overall asymmetry score.然后,对这些测量的距离进行对比,把所有的差距汇总,就成了非对称数据。Thus a perfectly symmetrical face, with eyes, lips and nostrils exactly the same distance from the central line, would earn a score of zero.因此,非常完美的对称面貌,眼睛,嘴唇以及鼻子两边离中间线的距离是相同的,因而总对称分数为0。A highly asymmetric one would score the sum of all the distance differences between features on the face.他们记录下非常不对称的猕猴脸部器官的差距和。The team then considered the overall health of the monkeys during their first four years of life.前四年这个团队关注这些猕猴的总体健康。This comparison was made from veterinary records and evidence of health problems.他们对兽医记录的以及健康问题的据进行对比。The researchers looked out for minor wounds that had been noted by staff but left to heal on their own; major wounds such as bites that required stitches; levels of subcutaneous fat and muscle; the quality of their coat; and their weight gain.研究人员关注那些工作人员之前注意到却任其自愈的小伤口;诸如咬伤之类需要缝合的大伤口;因咬而需缝线的大伤口;皮下脂肪厚度,肌肉的强壮;表皮质量以及体重增加。These health factors were compiled into two scores, one reflecting wounds and one reflecting the monkeys general condition, and they were compared with the asymmetry scores.这些健康因素分成两组分数,一组反映伤口情况,另一组反应猕猴总体身体状况,这些与不对称性数据进行比较。Dr Little and his colleagues report in Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology that whereas wounds showed no relationship to asymmetry, as the monkeys condition scores declined so too did their facial-symmetry results.里特士和他同事在《行为生态学和社会生物学》杂志上报道:虽然伤口与不对称性无任何关系,但猴子身体状况越差,它们的脸部就越不对称。The researchers argue that this health connection is what makes macaque monkeys look longer at symmetrical faces than they do at uneven ones.这些研究员认为,这一健康关联是因为猕猴对着对称面貌比不对称面貌时间长。Thus facial symmetry really does appear to be an indicator of health, at least among macaques.因此,面貌对称性真正能呈现身体健康指标,至少猕猴是这样。And what is true for them is likely to be true for people too.因此,适用于猕狒的这一原理可能也适用于人。 /201402/274789Business商业报道Advertising to the super-rich掘金超级富豪Posters for plutocrats为财阀们量身打造的海报How to sell more stuff to those who want for nothing如何向什么都不缺的人销售更多的东西If you doubt that the rich are different from you and me, try visiting a private-jet terminal.如果你怀疑有钱人不同于你我,你可以去一个私人飞机候机厅看看。One group waiting to board at Farnborough airport near London recently was a family of three generations and five dogs,最近一家祖孙三代人和五只宠物在伦敦附近的范堡罗机场等待登机,who would enjoy more in-flight pampering than any economy-class passenger could hope for.他们在飞机上享受到的务超越了任何一个经济舱旅客的想象。Passengers do not linger long:他们等待登机的时间并不长:15 minutes or so before boarding.大概也就15分钟。There are no duty-free shops.机场里没有任何免税商店。But it would be a pity not to tap into these travellersdeep pockets as they pause between limo and aircraft:但是没能在这些富豪走出轿车和登上飞机的间隙时间中,好好利用这段商机,还是挺可惜的:if you cannot sell, at least you can market.如果你卖不出去东西,至少你可以进行营销嘛。That is the ambition of Adlux, a Swiss firm that runs ads in private-jet terminals,这也正是瑞士公司Adlux的志趣所在。Adlux在私人飞机起始站做广告,perhaps the most rarefied form of out-of-home advertising, a category that includes billboards and bus-shelter posters.可能这是户外广告中最少见的一种形式,相比较而言,户外广告牌和公车站的海报倒是比较常见。The richest 0.5% of the world population owns half the wealth, its brochure cheerfully notes, and 1m people fly by private jet each month.公司的宣传册上写道:世界上最富裕的人只占总人口的0.5%,但是却拥有世界一半的财富,而且每个月乘坐私人飞机的人达到100万。Before boarding they are in a completely captive environment with few distractions, says Lisa Rokny, an Adlux executive.公司经理Lisa Rokny说,这些人在登机之前都是绝佳的买主,并且这种时候他们往往都无事可做。Mounted above the coffee station in Farnborough, a screen shows a silent .范堡罗机场一家咖啡店上方有一个大屏幕,一直播放着一段消声视频。Pastimes that the rich are presumed to enjoy are interspersed with ads for things they might buy.富豪们可能喜欢的消遣活动中不时穿插着一些广告,宣传的都是一些他们可能会买的东西,比如奢侈手表和私人务等。Adluxs loops, illuminated posters and product placements appear in 83 terminals worldwide.世界上83个私人飞机航站楼都有Adlux的循环视频、霓虹展板和植入式广告。Clients pay 60,000-70,000 for a four-week campaign at ten fixed-base operators,facilities that handle non-scheduled flights.一场在十个固定运营商举办的为期四周的广告,就收入了6-7万欧元。Business-jet travel in the rich world took a knock in the recession and has yet to recover.在富人世界里,商务飞行在经济危机中遭受打击,至今仍未恢复。But emerging economies are minting new jet-setters.不过新兴经济体正在打造新一代的富豪阶级。Indias business-jet fleet has grown from about 25 in 2005 to over 150 last year.印度的商务客机数量已经从2005年的25架上升到去年的150多架。Moscows Vnukovo airport is Europes busiest for international flights by larger private planes.莫斯科的伏努科沃机场是欧洲范围内大型私人飞机国际航班最繁忙的机场。The pitchmanship adjusts to plutocratsmigration patterns.销售模式随着富豪们的出行模式而进行调整。The middle-aged men who flock to Davos in January are receptive to cars and banking services.那些在一月份搭乘苏黎世基地航班而群聚达沃斯的中年男子们,对汽车和务都乐于接受。Ads for yachts ran in Nice during the Monaco motor-racing Grand Prix.在纳哥托车锦标赛期间,有关游艇的广告在尼斯持续播出。Passengers watch the s for 12 minutes on average, claims Ms Rokny, though the dog-owners did not seem quite so riveted.Rokny表示,乘客们平均观看视频的时间在12分钟左右,虽然那些富豪看得并不认真。This is a slightly old-fashioned approach to seducing the super-rich; experiences are a newer way.这种吸引超级富豪的方式稍稍有点老套了,顾客体验则是一种更加新式的方法。Samsung launched its Bluehouse Club for gadget-loving moneybags with a dinner for 60 at Annabels, a London club.三星推出的青瓦台俱乐部就是针对那些有钱的小电子迷,在伦敦Annabel俱乐部组织60个人的晚餐。A dancer performed on a new high-definition television, then in person.在一台高清电视上表演的舞者,一会就真人出现了。But there is more gold to be mined as the revellers fly home.但是当这些挥霍享乐的有钱人往回飞时,仍然是商机无限。Adlux is thinking of installing vending machines at FBOs which dispense Swiss watches.Adlux现在正在考虑在固定运营基地安置自动贩卖机,销售瑞士手表。 /201308/252650

  

  

  Finance and Economics;Light Squared;Falling star;财经;Light Squared;陨落之星;Philip Falcones largest investment has filed for bankruptcy;菲利普·法尔科恩(Philip Falcone)的最大投资已申请破产保护;“Buying 100% of companies, thats where I think a great opportunity is.” So said Philip Falcone, a hedge-fund manager, at an industry bash on May 9th. His opinions will count for less now. On May 14th LightSquared, a wireless venture 96%-owned by Harbinger Capital Partners, his fund, filed for bankruptcy.“全资拥有一家子公司,我才能看到巨大的商机。”在3月9日的产业盛会上,对冲基金经理人菲利普·法尔科恩(Philip Falcone)如此说道。然而现在他的理念已变得毫无意义。3月14日,先驱资本合作公司持有96%股份的无线网络运营商LightSquared申请破产保护。Mr Falcone made his billions betting against subprime mortgages; in 2007, his fund was up by around 115%. In 2010 he took control of LightSquared, a firm with big plans to build a wireless-broadband network. The Federal Communications Commission initially gave the go-ahead, only to change its mind in February after tests showed LightSquareds technology interfered with existing global-positioning satellites. With creditors pushing him to step aside, Mr Falcone put LightSquared into bankruptcy, hoping to buy a few months to come up with a new plan.法尔科恩将他数十亿的资产都押注在了房地产市场;在2007年,他的基金价值提升了将近115%。2010年,他掌控了LightSquared,一家计划在将来建立无线宽带网络的公司。最初联邦通讯委员会给予了一定持,然而在2月的时候,却因为LightSquared技术被检测出干扰目前GPS全球定位系统而改变了主意。在债权人执意要求法尔科恩下台的情况下,他提出让LightSquared自愿申请破产保护,希望可以拖上几个月以实施新的计划。The future looks dark. Mr Falcone has ploughed around 2.9 billion dollar into LightSquared, and it now accounts for around 40% of his fund. At its peak in 2008 Harbinger Capital managed 26 billion dollar, but that figure has plunged to 3 billion dollar due to losses and investor withdrawals.然而前景看起来并不是那么乐观。法尔科恩先期已尝试性在LightSquared投入290亿美元,这笔投资额几乎占了他旗下基金的40%。在2008年,先驱资本(Harbinger Capital)所管理的基金达到了一个巅峰——260亿美元,然而由于后期的亏损以及投资者的陆续撤资,这个数字很快缩水成30亿美元。Getting cash out of the fund has not been easy. When investors pulled money after 2008, Mr Falcone first invoked “gating” clauses restricting redemptions and then agreed to pay them “in kind” with LightSquared shares as he sold other assets. In December he told them they could no longer withdraw anything.从该基金中获利已经变得异常艰难。在2008年后当投资者们投入资金以后,法尔科恩开始对资本赎回设置了限制门槛,并许诺以同样的方式付,即LightSquared持有的他销售的营业外资产一样。在12月,他告诉这些投资者,他们将无法赎回任何资金。That same month the Securities and Exchange Commission notified him that they may file civil charges against him. The SEC is examining whether he properly disclosed to investors that he took a 113m dollar loan in to pay his personal taxes (he has since paid this back), whether he engaged in market manipulation and an additional undisclosed matter. Mr Falcone denies wrongdoing and has not been charged.在同一时期,券交易委员(SEC)会通知他们将针对向市民收费这一问题提出诉讼。SEC审查了法尔科恩是否向投资者透露了其在年贷款1.13亿美元以付他的个人税负(该债务已偿还)的内幕,是否对市场进行了非法操纵,以及其他一些不为人知的秘密。法尔科恩否认存在这些违反道德法规的行为,以及收费问题。Most agree he was reckless to plunge into such a long-term, illiquid investment. Mr Falcone has admitted his “asset-liability mismatch” and wants to raise more “permanent capital” instead. But who would write him a cheque? Critics predict LightSquareds bankruptcy will spell the end for Mr Falcone. Precedent would suggest otherwise. John Meriwether, the former boss of Long-Term Capital Management, is now running his third fund. Nicholas Maounis, once of Amaranth Advisors, another famous blow-up, now manages a 250m dollar fund. For a hard-nosed industry, the hedge-fund world is curiously forgiving.大部分人都认为他参与这个长期、非流动性的投资是冒进的。法尔科恩亦承认了他的资产和负债是不平衡的,因此想要以提高永久资产来替代当前的失衡状态。但是谁会给予他持?家们预言LightSquared的破产申请保护将意味着法尔科恩职业生涯的结束。第一个尝试的人总是会给予他人一些警示。长期资本管理的老板约翰·梅里韦瑟(John Meriwether),正运营着他的第三只基金。Amaranth曾经的顾问尼古拉斯·马奥尼斯(Nicholas Maounis),另一位后起之秀,正运营着一只2.5亿美金的基金。对于一个注重实际的产业,对冲基金将出乎意料地被原谅。 /201304/235015。

  

  Business商业报道Breaking up News Corp拆分新闻集团Murdoch does the splits新闻集团分家,默多克来操刀Investors like the idea of hiving off the groups newspaper arm投资者期盼分离新闻集团的新闻出版业务SHAKESPEARE mused that It is beyond the power of man to bring love and wisdom to an union.莎士比亚曾写过,爱使人愚笨。人对于喜爱的事物无法做出理智的判断。News Corporations shareholders have long agreed, arguing that Rupert Murdochs love for newsprint has clouded his judgment and tainted his media empire.新闻集团的股东们长期以来一致认为,鲁伯特·默多克对新闻出版业的钟爱混淆了他的判断力,危害了他的传媒帝国。The sluggish growth and the legal cases besetting News Corps publishing arm set it in sharp contrast to the groups robust film and television assets, which account for three-quarters of revenues and almost all operating profit.新闻集团的出版业务,发展缓慢,官司缠身,和其蓬勃壮大的影视业务一比,相形见绌。当前,集团四分之三的收入和几乎所有的盈利都来源于影视业务。After months of hinting that it may heed investors and separate the two parts, News Corps board met on June 27th to approve a split, and was set to confirm its decision as The Economist went to press.新闻集团将听取投资者的意见,拆分成两家独立的上市公司—这样的暗示流传了数月之久之后,新闻集团的董事会终于在6月27日探讨了拆分的可行性,并定于本期《经济学人》杂志出版之时给出定论。News that a split was under consideration sent News Corps share price up by around 10%.新闻集团打算拆分的消息出来后,该公司的股票价格上涨了约10%。At over , it is now at its highest since 2007.当前股价涨过22美元每股,为2007年以来的最高水平。This bolstered the view that dividing the group will boost both companies and reward shareholders.这无疑有力地持了新闻集团拆分为两家独立的上市公司对公司和股东都将大有裨益这一观点。After the phone-hacking scandal at News Corps British newspaper arm—which is still being investigated by Lord Justice Leveson, a senior judge—the group had to drop its bid for full ownership of BSkyB, a profitable satellite broadcaster; it aly owns 39%.新闻集团旗下的英国报纸闹出电话窃听丑闻之后—上诉法院的高级法官Leveson仍在调查此案—被迫放弃收购效益良好的英国卫星电视运营商BskyB。Separating the publishing division and giving it a new boss may not be enough to overcome regulatory obstacles to News Corp taking full ownership of BSkyB.新闻集团已经拥有该公司39%的股份。将出版业务分离出来,指派一个新的管理者,还不足以克收购BskyB所面临的政策上的障碍,But it should help protect the entertainment businesses from the scandals rising legal costs, and at least ward off pressure for News Corp to sell its existing stake.但却足以保护集团的业务免受窃听丑闻昂贵的诉讼费用带来的损失,并且顶住压力留住已经持有的BskyB股份。Besides closing the News of the World in the wake of the hacking scandal, News Corp has recently rid itself of another sour asset, MySpace, and initiated a billion share buy-back.自窃听丑闻发生以来,新闻集团除了停刊旗下的《世界新闻报》外,近期还卖掉了经营不善的社交网站聚友网,并斥资100亿美元回购集团股份。Such moves have supported the groups share price and pleased shareholders.这些买卖交易导致集团股价飙升,股东们自然不亦乐乎。But splitting the company in two is the ultimate dream of investors, says Michael Nathanson of Nomura, a stockbroker.将新闻集团一分为二才是股东们的终极梦想,野村券的股票经纪人Michael Nathanson如是说。Analysts worry that News Corp is still juggling too many minority stakes in smaller companies, such as Hulu and Tata Sky.有分析师担心,新闻集团在太多的小公司里持有小额股份,如在Hulu视频网站和印度卫星电视运营公司Tata Sky都持有股份,而这些小额股份不易管理。Todd Juenger of Sanford C. Bernstein, an investment bank, also worries about the billion of idle cash on News Corps balance-sheet.投行斯坦福·伯恩斯坦的Juenger也指出,新闻集团的资产负债表上闲置的110亿美元资产颇为令人担心。However, Chase Carey, the groups chief operating officer, has been busy trying to sort out its tangle of holdings, selling some of its minority stakes at a profit and buying full control of other holdings.新闻集团的首席运营官Chase Carey已经开始试着整理这一团乱麻般的闲置资产,他以有所盈利的价格售出一部分小公司的股权,并全股收购余下的小公司。Investors seem prepared to cut Mr Carey some slack while he does so.投资者对于Carey此番的运营方案并无异议。Any reorganisation of the top table will probably keep him just below Rupert Murdoch, leaving his son James Murdoch,一旦高层人员有所调整,Carey很有可能荣升为新闻集团的第二把手。who gave up the chairmanship of News Corps British newspaper arm after the scandal, out of the spotlight for now.这下鲁伯特·默多克的儿子詹姆斯·默多克会暂时退出公众的视线了。窃听丑闻发生之后,詹姆斯·默多克便辞去了新闻集团英国报业的主席职位。The fastest-growing parts of the company are its television and cable businesses.新闻集团发展最快的是无线电视和有线电视业务。News Corp was shrewd in understanding the market for conservative political TV in America:集团精明地预见到了保守的政论节目在美国的广泛市场:the core audience of Fox News creates a stable cashflow.福克斯新闻台的核心观众群,带来了稳定的资金流入。The company has also made wise investments in sports broadcasting, which viewers still prefer to watch live.集团还明智地投资于体育节目的直播。体育频道的观众爱看现场直播。BSkyB owns the lions share of Britains football rights, Fox has American football, and its cable network hosts NASCAR races.BSkyB在英国享有最大份额的足球节目直播权,福克斯拥有美式橄榄球赛的直播权,并且福克斯有线电视网还负责主持全美运动汽车竞赛。The company is expanding its holdings in Australia and Latin America, and is considering a new national sports network in America to rival ESPN.新闻集团还在扩张其在澳洲和拉丁美洲所持的体育赛事直播权,同时还在策划在美国建立一个可以匹敌ESPN的全国体育节目网。The portfolio of newspapers in News Corps publishing arm encompasses loss-makers like the London Times and the New York Post,新闻集团出版业务的众多资产中,既有像《泰晤士报》和《纽约邮报》这样入不敷出的,as well as the Wall Street Journal, which Mr Murdoch paid too much for but which at least is in profit,有像《华尔街日报》这样投资巨大才略有盈利的,and the Sun, a populist cash-cow.也有像《太阳报》这样提倡民粹主义的摇钱树。The newspaper business may not be growing, but it generates enough cashflow to sustain itself, says Jeff Logsdon of BMO Capital Markets.加拿大蒙特利尔资本市场的Jeff Logsdon指出,新闻出版业或许无法扩大,但所产出的收益足以维持自身的运营。It is unlikely that the company will try to offload its British papers while Mr Murdoch is still alive, in part because the phone-hacking trials could go on for years.在默多克有生之年,新闻集团抛弃旗下英国报纸可能性不大,部分原因正是电话窃听案。窃听案怕是得审上好几年。The ideal outcome for investors may be a repeat of what happened when Viacom, a film and cable giant, spun off its broadcast arm, CBS, in 2005.投资者所期望的理想结果是,拆分之后两家公司的运营能像当时的美国维亚康姆集团那样。Sumner Redstone remained chairman of both sides but Leslie Moonves, given the job of running the supposedly sluggish CBS part,影视巨头维亚康姆集团于2005年将有线电视业务和无线电视业务拆分开来。showed that it could be revived—since when the shares of both businesses have risen.由哥伦比亚广播公司专营无线电视业务。Sumner Redstone仍然兼任两家公司的主席。Leslie Moonves负责运营当时不被看好的哥伦比亚广播公司,通过妥善的管理使哥伦比亚广播公司重整旗鼓—自此以后,两家公司的股价都有所攀升。 /201307/248323

  Some diseases are contagious–like colds, flu, and chickenpox. 一些疾病是会传染的,例如一般感冒、流感以及水痘。But what about loneliness? 但是寂寞会不会传染呢?Loneliness may not be adisease, at least not in the same way that chicken pox is.寂寞或许并不是一种疾病,至少跟水痘不一样吧。But loneliness can be contagious.但它是会传染的。How so? The same way that many emotions can be infectious. 为什么会这样呢?同样的道理,人的许多情绪都是可以传染的。Being around someone whos really happy can put you in a good mood.在一个快乐的人旁边可以让你心情愉快;While hanging around someone whos depressed can be, well, depressing.然而在一个失落的人旁边会让你感到沮丧。The same goes for loneliness.寂寞也是这样的。According to one study, the average person feels lonely about forty-eight days per year.一项调查表明,人在一年当中感到孤独的平均时间是48天。Having a lonely friend adds around seventeen extra days of lonelyfeelings.若是有个寂寞的朋友,会增加17天左右。Following more than five-thousand people for ten years, the study observed how lonelinesscan sp through a group.该项目在十年间跟踪调查了5000多人,观察寂寞是如何在一群人中蔓延的。Lonely people, it seems, transmit their sad, lonely feelings to peoplearound them.结果似乎是寂寞的人会把他们悲伤、寂寞的感觉传播给他周围的人。What happens, according to the study, is that interacting with a lonely person canleave you with a negative feeling toward friendship generally.根据这项调查,在一般情况下,与一个寂寞的人相处会会让你对友谊有着消极的情绪。And so youre more likely to havenegative experiences with other friends, weakening social bonds.这样一来,你就很可能与朋友发生不愉快,削弱你的社会联系。If loneliness is allowed to sp unchecked, it can destroy a social network.倘若寂寞可以随意蔓延,它会毁掉你的社交网络。The best way to ward off this sort of lonely contagion is to pay more attention to people onthe edges of a group.避免寂寞传染的最好方式就是将更多的注意力放在处于群里边缘的人身上,Reaching out to those who are shy or dont fit in, and are therefore lonely,can make them feel less alone.向那些害羞或者不适应的人伸出手,这样会让他们感到没那么寂寞。And so theyre less likely to sp lonely feelings throughout thegroup.从而就不太将寂寞感传给群体里的人。 201406/304654

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