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Further development of Neo-Confucian philosophy: Although Confucianism had been adopted as “orthodox” state doctrine since the Han Dynasty,and Neo-Confucianism since the Yuan Dynasty, there existed many liberate and oppositional ways of thought among the Confucian scholarship, especially from the Donglin A-cademy.新理学的进一步发展:尽管理学自汉朝以来被认为是正统的国教,但是,自元朝时候起,新理学就以多种自由的和相反的思想形式在理学者,特别是东林院中流行。Taoism and Chan-Buddhism showed their influence in the thinking of Ming scholars that retired from official posts and developed quietistic philosophies.道教和禅宗佛学在明朝退休的高官中有很大影响,并发展成了清静无为哲学。The greatest Ming philosopher is Wang Yangming or Wang Shouren. He proposed that an innate knowledge enable man to reach goodness even without learning or studying the Confucian Classics.明朝最伟大的哲学家是王阳明(王守仁),他认为,人可以不学习、不研究理学,其良知就能让其达到善界。Li Zhi even renounced the orthodox Confucianism and accused his contemporaries of pharisaism.李贽甚至完全放弃传统的理学,并批评他同时期的哲学家的伪善。He sympathized with Buddhism and vernacular literature of the urban population, and he acted as advocate of discriminated and disadvantaged groups like the poor average people, women and ethnic minorities.他同情佛教和城里人的本语言文学,并为那些受歧视和处于弱势的人群如贫穷的老百姓、妇女和少数民族而充当辩护人。Li Zhi’s words and behaviours were lodged a false accusation against the classics and orthodoxy by the governors and he was arrested and put into prison and died there.李贽的言行被当时统治者诬为离经饭道,结果被捕下狱而死。Science and technology :In the field of science and technology, numerous publications about geography also of foreign countries, techniques, agronomy, geology, craftsmanship, military, medicine and pharmacology were published, for ex-ample Chen Fu9s and Wang Zhen#39;s Nongshu or Book of Agronomy 11, Xu Guan-gqi^ agronomic encyclopedia Nongzheng Quanshu , and Li Shizhen^ pharmacological encyclopedia Bencao Gangmu .科学技术:在科学技术方面,一系列的关于国内国外的地理学、技术、农学、地质学、手工业、军事、医学和药物学的作品出版发行。如,陈甫和王祯的《农书》,徐光启的《农政全书》和李时珍的《本草纲目》。Another interesting book is the illustrated encyclopedia 5a^icai Tuhui Of u Assembled illustrations of the Three Realms of Heaven y Earth and Man 11.另一本有趣的著作是《三才图会》,书中诠释了三大王国——天国、地球和人类的关系。Another famous book which is about science and technology is Song Yingxing#39;S Tian Gong Kai Wu M.著名的科技读物是宋应星的《天工开物》。And u Traveling Notes of Xu Xiake 19 \S a book about Chinese geography by the greatest traveler Xu XiaKe then in the Ming dynasty, who traveled on foot to all the famous and great mountains and rivers in China.而明朝时期大旅行家徐霞客的《徐霞客游记》则讲述了中国的地理情况,徐霞客徒步游遍了中国的名川大山。At the end of the Ming, Jesuit missionaries translated Western writings (and not only the Bible ), and Chinese writers described machines the Jesuits had presented to the Chinese Emperors.明朝末年,耶稣使者翻译了大量的西方作品(不仅仅是《圣经》),中国作家也讲述了使者们送给中国皇帝的机器。Like today, the Chinese scholars of late Ming Dynasty were especially interested in science and technique of the West.和今天一样,明朝时期的中国学者们对西方的科学技术都极为感兴趣。The Western missionaries and travelers also brought Chinese science to Europe.而西方的传教士和旅行家也把中国的科学带到了欧洲。Anecdotes, stories and novels:The advance in printing technique as well as the demand from an urban public made it necessary and possible for vernacular literature to become more widesp than ever before.文学艺术:印刷术的发展和城镇居民的需要使本土文学有必要、有可能比以前任何时候发展的更快。Anecdotes, stories and tales were published in collections like M PaVan Jingqi y,or u Surprising Stories Causing the Reader to Pound the Table ”“Jingu Qiguan ”or“ Wonderful Tales of Old and New Times.奇闻逸事、小说和故事常常成册发行,如《拍案惊奇》、《今古奇观》等。Probably the most important late Ming anecdote writer is Feng Menglong who wrote the ghost story u Pingyaozhuan and the collection Xingshi HengyanOf M Proverbs Awakening the World yy .明朝晚期最著名的奇闻作家也许是冯梦龙,他著写了神鬼小说《平妖传》和《醒世恒言》。Apart from short Stories ,voluminous novels were written that consisted of hundreds of small tales a-bout local and historic heroes : the hero tales “ Journey to the Westby Wu Cheng n, Investiture of the Gods edited by Xu Zhonglin, the M Three Kingdoms , and the u Water Margin 11 Of u Bandits of Liangshan Swamp by LllO Guanzhong, and finally, the erotic social critic M Plums in a Golden Vase Theatre plays had been popular since the Song Dynasty, and we possess a collection of famous Yuan theatre plays published during Ming, the u Yuanquxuan 11. The greatest Ming theatre play is Tang Xianzu^ u Peony Pavilion.除短篇小说外,长篇小说又叫章回小说也有大量出版,它们通常包括有关地方和社会英雄的数百个故事。如,吴承恩的《西游记》,还有许仲琳编辑的《封神演义》,罗贯中的《三国演义》和《水浒传》,还有最后时期的描写性爱的遭到社会批判的《金瓶梅》。自宋朝以来戏曲一直很流行,直到现在我们还有在明朝时期出版的著名元曲集锦《元曲选》,明朝时期最伟大的戏曲是汤显祖的《牡丹亭》。 /201603/428562A KFC restaurant in the UK has been forced to issue their first ever ban on youngsters eating without adults inside the restaurant after a spate of fights involving teen gangs.继一连串青少年聚众斗殴事件后,英国一家肯德基店被迫首次禁止青少年在无成人陪同下在店内用餐。The fast food chain announced the restriction just days after a McDonald#39;s restaurant on the same retail park adopted the same policy.在同一销售地区内的一家麦当劳餐厅采取了这一措施几天之后,这家快餐连锁企业很快也宣布了这一限制。Under-18s can only eat inside the restaurant if they are accompanied by an adult. If they are on their own they can only enter the premises to order food for takeaway.在一名成人陪同下,未满18岁者方可进店用餐。如无成人陪伴,未满18岁者只能进店点餐带走。Last week, McDonald#39;s confirmed an identical ban after police were called when 24 youngsters were caught fighting on the nearby A50.上周,因为24个未成年人在附近的A50地区发生了斗殴事件,警察也被叫了过来。这件事之后,麦当劳方面确认了一项相同的禁令。Now, KFC manager Liam Dalgarno said that the way some of these youngsters act can be scary for staff. The ban will help the staff feel safer at work.现在,这家肯德基餐厅的经理利亚姆·达尔加诺表示,一些青少年的行为举止让店内员工提心吊胆。禁令会让值班员工更有安全感。KFC has almost 900 restaurants in the UK, but this is believed to be its first ban on under-18s.肯德基在英国有大约900家分店,但是这家分店被认为是第一家禁止18岁以下青少年的餐厅。 /201603/429815Designing a Universe设计一个宇宙Like most of his colleagues at the time, Einstein considered the universe to consist of a cloud of stars, the Milky Way, surrounded by vast space. What was beyond? Was the universe infinite? And if so, what stopped a star from drifting so far that it would have nothing to relate to?就像他当时的大多数同事一样,爱因斯坦认为宇宙由大量恒星、及周围的广阔空间组成。宇宙之外有什么?宇宙是无限的吗?如果是这样的话,什么能阻止一颗恒星漂移到与所有物体脱离联系的距离?To avoid such problems, Einstein set out in 1917 to design a universe without boundaries. In his model, space is bent around to meet itself, like the side of a tin can.为了避免此类问题,爱因斯坦在1917年建立了无限宇宙模型。在他设立的模型中,空间就像锡罐的侧面一样,能够弯曲触碰到自己。“I have committed another suggestion with respect to gravitation which exposes me to the danger of being confined to the nut house,” he confided to a friend.他向一名朋友倾诉,“我提出另一个有关引力的建议,这使我面临被关进疯人院的风险。”This got rid of the need for troublesome boundaries. But this universe was unstable, and the cylinder would collapse if something didn’t hold its sides apart.这就不需要设置令人烦恼的边界了。但这个宇宙并不稳定,如果某种东西没有将两边撑住,这个圆柱就会坍缩。That something was a fudge factor added to the equations Einstein called the cosmological constant. Physically, this new term, denoted by the Greek letter lambda, represented a long-range repulsive force.这种东西就是爱因斯坦在自己的公式中插入的一种被他称为“宇宙常数”的容差系数。从物理学来看,这个由希腊字母“兰布达”(λ)指代的新名词代表着远距离的排斥力。The happy result, Einstein thought, was a static universe of the type nearly everybody believed they lived in and in which geometry was strictly determined by matter.爱因斯坦认为,皆大欢喜的结果就是一个静态宇宙,几乎所有人都认为他们生活在这样一个宇宙中,其中的几何形态完全由物质决定。But it didn’t last. Willem de Sitter, a Dutch astronomer, came up with his own solution describing a universe that had no matter at all and was flying apart.但这没能站住脚。荷兰天文学家威廉·德西特(Willem de Sitter)提出了自己的解答,他描述了一个根本不存在物质且正在飞散的宇宙。“It would be unsatisfactory, in my opinion,” Einstein grumbled, “if a world without matter were possible.”“我认为,如果说一个没有物质的世界是可能存在的,”爱因斯坦抱怨称。“这是无法令人满意的。”And then Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe really was expanding.后来,埃德温·哈勃(Edwin Hubble)发现,宇宙确实在不断膨胀。If the cosmological constant couldn’t keep the universe still, then forget about it and Mach’s Principle, Einstein said. “It dates back to the time in which one thought that the ‘ponderable bodies’ are the only physically real entities,” he later wrote to the British cosmologist Felix Pirani.爱因斯坦表示,既然这个宇宙常数不能使宇宙保持静态,那就别考虑它以及马赫原理了。他后来给英国宇宙学家费利克斯 ·皮拉尼(Felix Pirani)写信称,“这可以追溯到人们认为‘有重量的物质’是唯一真实存在的实体的时候。”But it was too late. Quantum mechanics soon invested empty space with energy. In 1998 astronomers discovered that dark energy, acting just like the cosmological constant, seems to be blowing space-time apart, just as in de Sitter’s universe.但为时已晚。量子力学很快就表明,真空中存在很多能量。1998年,天文学家发现暗能量就像宇宙常数一样,似乎将空间与时间分离,与德西特描述的宇宙相似。In fact, most cosmologists agree today that not quite all motion is relative and that space-time does have an existence independent of matter, though it is anything but static and absolute. The best example are gravitational waves, ripples of compression and stretching speeding through empty space at the speed of light.实际上,大多数宇宙学家如今同意这个观点,即并不是所有运动都是相对的,时空的确独立于物质存在,尽管它不是静态和绝对的。最好的例子就是引力波——以光速超速穿过真空的一波波引力压缩和伸展。Einstein was back and forth on this. In 1916, he told Schwarzschild they did not exist, then published a paper saying they did. In 1936, he and his assistant did the same flip-flop again.爱因斯坦在整个问题上摇摆不定。他在1916年告诉史瓦西,引力波并不存在,后来又发表论文称它存在。他和助手在1936年再次改变观点。Nobody said this was easy, even for Einstein.没人认为这很简单,即使是对爱因斯坦来说。He set out to do one thing, namely make all motion relative, Michel Janssen, a science historian at the University of Minnesota, told a Princeton gathering this month. He failed, but in the process succeeded in doing something very interesting, unifying the effects of acceleration and gravity.明尼苏达大学(University of Minnesota)科学史学家米歇尔·詹森(Michel Janssen)本月在普林斯顿大学参加聚会时表示,爱因斯坦开始做一件事情,就是使所有运动成为相对的。他失败了,但他在这个过程中成功地做了一些有趣的事情,将加速度与引力的效应统一起来。The story goes to show, he said, that Bob Dylan was right when he sang “there’s no success like failure,” but wrong that “failure is no success at all.”他表示,这个故事说明,鲍勃·迪伦(BobDylan)那句“没有像失败这样的成功”是对的,但“失败根本不是成功”是错误的。Einstein’s greatest success came in 1919, when Arthur Eddington did the experiment that Freundlich had set out to do, and ascertained that lights in the heavens were all askew during an eclipse, bent by the sun’s dark gravity, just as Einstein had predicted.爱因斯坦在1919年取得了巨大成功,当时亚瑟·爱丁顿(Arthur Eddington)做了弗罗因德利希之前开始做的实验,他发现,正如爱因斯坦预测的那样,出现日食时,天空中的光线在太阳的暗引力下发生弯曲,出现偏斜。Asked what he would have done if general relativity had failed, Einstein said, “Then I would have been sorry for the dear Lord. The theory is correct.”被问及如果广义相对论失败了,他会做什么时,爱因斯坦曾说,“那我会替敬爱的主感到难过。这个理论是正确的。”And still the champ.而且直到今天还是最棒的。 /201511/412455

One of the responsibilities of the Food and Drug Administrationis to assure that foods are labeled properly. It providesregulations on what, where, and how prominently informationshould be placed on packaging. The idea is that consumersshould not be misled by what they on the groceries theybuy. However, the labels should also be written in plain,understandable language. This means that sometimes regularEnglish words—words that have commonsense but slightly fuzzy meanings—must be definedmore precisely for food labeling. Here are 11 words that mean something more specific on thesupermarket shelves.  美国食品药物(FDA)的责任之一就是确保食品被正常标注。该局提供对包装上应标示的食品成分,产地及生产过程这些重要信息的管理规定,目的是确保产品上的说明不会误导消费者。然而,标签应使用简单且易懂的语言。这就意味着有时正常的英语单词在食品标示中应该更加简洁明了,这些词都是常见的,但是意思稍微有些模糊。下面这11个词在超市的货架上就有着特殊的意义。  1. IMITATION   A food that looks like another food but isn’t made of the same stuff is an imitation, right? Notquite. It only has to be labeled as “imitation” if it has a lower amount of protein or some otheressential nutrient than the food it’s trying to look like.  一种食品看上去像另一种食品,但是原料却不相同,那么这就是一个仿造品,是吗?这是不准确的。如果该食品比被模仿的食品的蛋白质或其他一些营养成分低,那么它只能被贴上“仿造品”的标签。  2. FREE   If it’s free of fat, or sugar, or salt, it doesn’t mean that not one trace of those things is to be foundin it. The FDA evaluates certain terms with reference to a typical portion size known as an RACC(reference amounts customarily consumed per eating occasion). An RACC of eggnog, for example,is #189; cup. For croutons, it’s 7 grams, and for scrambled eggs, 100 grams. To be labeled “free” ofcalories, the food must have less than 5 per RACC. For fat and sugar, less than .5 grams. Forsodium, less than 5 milligrams. Also, the food must somehow be processed to be “free” of thosethings in order to get the simple “free” label. You can’t have “fat free lettuce,” only “lettuce, a fatfree food.”  食物上脱脂、无糖或者无盐的字样,并不意味着食物中完全没有这些成分。美国食品药物(FDA)参照RACC(单次食用参考值)这个有代表性的分配比例来评估某些条款。例如,蛋酒的RACC数值是半杯。油炸面包丁是7克,炒鸡蛋是100克。只有对应的RACC数值小于5,才能被标注为“free”,即:脂肪和糖分少于5克,钠含量少于5毫克。此外,食品必须经过处理成;free;的商品,以获得单一的标签。你买不到“无脂肪生菜”,只能是“生菜,无脂肪的食物”。  3. LOW   Low is also defined with respect to set portion sizes and varies with whether it refers to calories,fat, or sodium. For fat it’s less than 3 grams. For calories, it’s less than 40, unless it’s a preparedmeal, in which case it’s 120 per 100 grams. Saturated fat and cholesterol have specific “low”values as well.  低含量也是用来定义食品中是卡路里、脂肪和盐分的含量。脂肪要少于3克,卡路里要小于40,才能称为;low;,如果是一顿总量100克的饭,总卡路里不得超过120。另外,饱和脂肪和胆固醇有特别低的价值含量。  4. REDUCED/LESS   Sometimes manufacturers want to make a relational claim about a food—not just that it’s “low” insome substance, but lower than it usually is (which may mean it doesn’t meet the standard for“low” at all). Relational claims are evaluated with respect to a reference food. A reference foodshould be the same type of food (chocolate ice cream compared to other chocolate ice cream)though the numbers against which the “reduced” claims are compared can be an average of thetop three brands. The “reduced” substance must be less than 25 percent of what it is in thereference food.  有时制造商想要做一个食品的相关声明,不仅仅是标明某些成分中的低含量,而且比通常同类食品的含量还低(这就意味着它完全没有达到低含量的标准)。一种参照食物应该是相同类型的食品根据数量和降低含量的比值评选出的平均前三名(例如巧克力冰激凌和其他巧克力冰激凌相比)。食物中降低的成分一定要比参照物的中该成分含量还要小25%。  5. LIGHT   Light (or lite) is also evaluated with respect to a reference food, and a rather complicated set ofconditions is taken into account for different substances. For example, if a “light” product hasmore than half of its calories from fat, the fat must be reduced by half per reference servingamount. If less than half its calories come from fat, it can be “light” if the calories per serving arereduced by 1/3. Sometimes foods that meet “low” requirements can also be labeled as “light.” “Lightly salted” should have 50 percent less sodium than a reference food.  Light通常也是被用来评定参考食物的,这是一种非常复杂的组合用来说明不同的成分。例如,如果一种“Light”食物的脂肪中一半以上的卡路里来自脂肪,其单份参考规格中的脂肪就必须减半。如果不到一半的卡路里来自脂肪,那么单份参考规格中的卡路里就要减少1/3。有些食品达到;low;的标准也能贴上;light;的标签。盐分偏少的食物中,其盐分含量必须偏低至少50%。  6. HIGH   Our food labels don’t only brag about low levels of the bad stuff, but also about high levels of thegood stuff. “High” (or “rich in”) means that the food has 20 percent or more of the recommendeddaily value for that nutrient per reference serving.  我们的食品标签不仅标榜食品中成分的“低含量”,也要宣传高含量的好东西。高含量(丰富)就意味着食物中含有日常建议一餐所需营养价值的20%或者更多。  7. GOOD SOURCE   “Good source of” is a little lower than “high.” A food with this label should have 10 to 19 percentof the recommended daily value.  “Good source of“比”high“含量低一点。带有这一标签的食物应该拥有日常建议所需营养价值的10%到19%。  8. MORE   Below “good source” is “more,” “fortified,” “enriched,” “added,” “extra,” or “plus.” A food with 10percent of the recommended daily value can use one of these, but it only applies for vitamins,minerals, protein, fiber, and potassium.  在“大量的(good source)”标准之下的是“更多的(more),” “增强的(fortified),” “丰富的(enriched),” “有添加的(added),” “剩余的 (extra),”和“少量的(plus).”食物中拥有10%的日常所需营养就可以使用以上的这些词中的一个,但是他只能应用在维他命,矿物质,蛋白质,纤维和钾这些方面。  9. LEAN   “Lean” applies to seafoods or meats that have less than combined specified levels of fat, saturatedfat, and cholesterol (10g, 4.5g, and 95mg, respectively).  ;lean;被用于海产品和肉类上,这些食物拥有比脂肪,含饱和脂肪酸的脂肪和胆固醇组合而成的特殊等级还要低(他们的含量分别是10克,4.5克,95毫克)。  10. HEALTHY   To qualify as “healthy,” a product must meet the “low” standard for fat and saturated fat, anotherstandard for sodium and cholesterol, and it must have at least 10 percent of the recommendeddaily value for a range of nutrients.  达到”健康“标准,该产品必须满足低脂和含低饱和脂肪酸的脂肪的双重标准,还有另一个钠和胆固醇的标准。它必须拥有至少日常建议所需所有营养价值的10%。  11. NATURAL   After years soliciting suggestions and considering comments on the question of what “natural”should mean, no useful consensus could be reached, and the FDA decided to forgo establishing anofficial definition. Though it hasn’t issued rules for the use of “natural,” it endorses the generalunderstanding that it implies nothing artificial orsynthetic has been added that would not normallybe expected to be added.  对“天然”的界定经过数年的征求意见和后,一直也没有达成一致的共识,美国食品药物决定放弃长久以来官方给出的定义。虽然没有发布对“天然”用途的规定,但是赞成普遍的理解,“天然”就是没有经过人工的或是合成的,不会是人们通常被期望的那样添加。 /201603/433304

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