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楼主:飞度咨询永州新闻 时间:2017年12月16日 13:18:23 点击:0 回复:0
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You#39;ve heard about the power of positive thinking, right? Everyone#39;s raving about it. If you simply think positively, rainstorms will turn into rainbows, red lights will turn green, and your in-laws will suddenly turn into human beings. Right? Right?!你应该听过积极思考的魔力吧?每个人都对它赞不绝口。若你凡事就只用积极方式思考,暴风雨能变成虹,红灯能变成绿灯,对吧?真的是这样吗?I#39;ll tell you what you can control, though: your words. By making a few changes in your vocabulary, you can turn steaming piles of crap into 100% organic fertilizer. You can turn an inconvenient power outage into cuddle time with your sweetie. And you can turn obligations into opportunities. Words shape thoughts, and you#39;ll find that if you change your words for the better, your thoughts will change for the better too, and so will your life.我来告诉你需要控制的东西:你的语言。只要对你的遣词做点小小改变,你会将一连串的废话变成100%的有机肥料。你可以将令人尴尬的冷场变成甜言蜜语。你也可以将那些不得不说的时刻变成你的机遇。语言造就思维,你会发现若你改善自己的遣词,你的思维会变得更出色,随之而来的就是你越来越美妙的生活。1.Should1.应该Have you heard the expression ;Stop shoulding all over yourself;? Well, let#39;s clean that ;should; off your pants and replace it with some organic fertilizer, because every obligation can be rephrased as a desire. Instead of ;I should go to the store,; how about ;I want to go to the store because I#39;m hungry and I want to buy some food;?你有听过这句话:;不要给自己太多的束缚;。让我们将所有;应该;改成一些有营养的话语吧,每个义务都可以被愿望所替代。当你说;我应该去商店;时,改成;我想去商店,因为我饿了;怎么样?2.Ought2.应当;I ought to get this work done before I go to the party.; What do you want to do? Weigh your preferences. How good or bad would you feel about getting the work done first? How good or bad would you feel about leaving it undone? Figure out what you most want, and then do it. In any case, let go of the obligation. ;I want to get this work done before I go to the party, because I#39;ll feel a lot better once it#39;s finished.;;我应当把工作做完后再去聚会;。其实你到底想做什么?权衡下你的喜好。选择先完成工作的你,是什么感觉?选择把它扔一边参加聚会又是什么感觉?想想你最想做什么,接着马上执行。无论如何,别管所谓的义务。你可以说;我想把工作做完后再去聚会,因为一旦工作完成我会感觉更加安稳;。3.Need to3.需要;I need to walk the dog.; How about instead, ;I want our dog to be happy and healthy, and I want to have a nice, clean, poop-free house, so I#39;m going to walk the dog.;;我得去遛;,还是;我想让健康活泼,也想有个干净漂亮的家,所以我要去遛;?4.Have to4.不得不;I have to go to work.; Well, no. You don#39;t have to. It#39;s just that your actions have consequences. Even if you don#39;t enjoy the process of getting there, you might really want the end result. So maybe a more positive way to phrase it would be, ;I want to make money, so I#39;m going to go to work.; Keeping your goal in mind can make the process of getting there better for you.;;我不得不工作;,不要这么说。你没有不得不做的事情。你的行为决定结果。即使你不享受做事的过程,你也确实想得到结果。因此我们可以用更加积极的词汇去表达,;我想赚钱,所以要去工作;。把自己的目标牢记在心,你就可以更加轻松地享受过程。5.Must5.必须;I must go to bed now or else I#39;ll be tired and groggy all day tomorrow.; Okay, you got me, nobody actually talks like this. But you get the idea, right? ;Must;, another obligation word, and again you can rephrase it positively as a desire. ;I#39;ll go to bed now because I want to feel alert and awake tomorrow.; Doesn#39;t that take a weight off your shoulders and make you feel better about it?;我必须得上床睡觉了,否则明天会困死的;。你真是耍我,没人会这么说话。但你听懂了是不是?;必须;是表达义务的另一个词汇,所以你同样可以用愿望来代替它。;明天我要让自己保持清醒,现在就要上床睡觉。;这句话能不能减轻你的压力,让你感觉好点呢?6.Can#39;t6.不能Enough of obligation words, limiting words are even more dangerous. How many times do we say ;I can#39;t; when it#39;s not really true? ;I can#39;t write well.; Maybe you don#39;t write well right now, but you can if you put your mind to it. If you wanted to, you could practice and learn and gain new skills. So how about ;I#39;m not that great at writing yet?; ;Can#39;t; closes a door. You can stick your foot in that door and prop it open by choosing other words.说了这么多义务性的词汇,其实限制性词汇更恐怖。当事实根本不是那样时,我们说了多少次;我不能;?;我写不出漂亮的字迹;,或许你现在写不出,之后你下定决心纠正就可以了呢?如果你想改善,你可以练习写字,学习新技巧。;我不擅长写字;这样是不是好点呢?;不能;使你将机会拒之门外。其实你可以使用其他的词汇,将那扇门打开。7.Impossible 7.不可能;It#39;s impossible for me to be a professional athlete; I#39;m just naturally clumsy.; You know what? I#39;ve seen a one-legged man compete in a Dance Dance tournament — and win. Nothing is impossible, it just takes time, practice, and dedication. Talent is completely irrelevant in the face of determination. How about ;It#39;s possible for me to be a professional athlete if I want to put in the time and effort.;;我天生就笨,不可能成为职业运动员。; 你知道吗?我看过只有一条腿的残疾人在劲舞锦标赛中出色演出,而且获胜了。所以一切皆有可能。需要的只是时间,练习和你的投入。在决心面前,天赋不堪一击。这么说好不好——;如果我花时间精力的话,成为职业运动员是有可能的。;8.Never8.决不;I could never sing as well as her.; Again, you probably could. Even if today, the sound of you singing in the shower sends birds spiraling disoriented into the ground, that#39;s just today. You can improve, you can get better, and you can keep getting better for as long as you want to. She probably took hours and hours of voice lessons, so you#39;re not being fair to yourself. ;I could sing as well as her or better if I put my mind to it.;;我绝不可能唱得比她好。; 又来了,你为什么不可能?即使今天你在浴室唱歌的声音把小鸟都吓得没头乱飞,那也只是今天罢了。你可以进步,做得更好,你还可以继续保持进步——只要你愿意。她可能上了很久的声乐课,你干嘛要自暴自弃呢?所以要这么说;只要有心,我也可以和她唱得一样动听,甚至更好。;9.Smack9.抽你In addition to limiting words, violent words can bring unnecessary negativity into your life. ;I#39;m gonna smack you if you don#39;t shut up right now!; If that#39;s really true, then that#39;s cool, you#39;re speaking authentically. But I found myself saying this when what I really meant was, ;I#39;m feeling upset and frustrated because I can#39;t concentrate with a lot of noise around. Could you please be quiet? I#39;d really appreciate it.; When I rephrased my vocabulary this way, the people around me felt a lot more considered and respected.另外,一些暴力词汇也只能对你的生活产生消极影响。;你丫再不闭嘴我就抽你了!; 如果你真要那么做,那倒挺不错的,至少你在讲真话。但我发现一般这样说只是为了表达;周围太吵,我注意力集中不了,太让人心烦了。你可以安静点吗?非常感激!; 当我用这种方式来表达时,周围的人也会感觉到被尊重和照顾。10.Kill10.把你杀了Now this one I hope you#39;re not saying with authenticity. ;I#39;m going to kill you if you leave the toilet seat up one more time!; That#39;s one way to express anger and frustration, but how about expressing it directly instead? ;I feel angry and hurt when you leave the toilet seat up, because it seems inconsiderate to me, like you don#39;t care about my comfort or our shared space.; The ;kill; phrasing is likely to lead to an argument, but the ;I feel; phrasing is likely to lead to a conversation that might make things better.我希望你说这个词时是在开玩笑。;如果你再将马桶座立起来我就把你杀了!;这是一种表达说话人愤怒挫败的词汇,那你可以将自己的愤怒直接说出来呀!;你把马桶座立起来时我很生气,因为我觉得你不顾我的感受,就如你不在乎我们共有的空间,不在乎我是否舒。;;杀;这个词会引起争论,但;我感到;就好多了,它带来的更多是沟通和交谈。These are just 10 of the many words you can rephrase to improve your life. It#39;s even easier and more fun with a partner. Pick a word that you#39;d like to rephrase, and ask your partner to let you know whenever you use that word. It can be challenging, but it#39;s also incredibly rewarding!以上是10种改述方法会让你的生活变得更加美好。如果和某个朋友一起进行会更加轻松有趣。选择一个你要改变的词,当你使用它的时候让你的朋友提醒你。这种方法很有挑战性,但也确实能获得十足的回报哦! /201208/193426Could you pack more into each day if you did everything at the optimal time?如果任何事情都是在最佳时间去做,你的每一天是否就能加进更多的活动?A growing body of research suggests that paying attention to the body clock, and its effects on energy and alertness, can help pinpoint the different times of day when most of us perform our best at specific tasks, from resolving conflicts to thinking creatively.越来越多的研究表明,多加重视生物钟及其对人的精力和清醒度的影响有助于我们精确找到大多数人一天中从事具体活动──无论是解决矛盾还是创造性思维──的最佳时间。Alertness tends to slump after eating a meal, Dr. Matchock found. Sleepiness also tends to peak around 2 p.m., making that a good time for a nap, says Martin Moore-Ede, chairman and chief executive of Circadian, a Stoneham, Mass., training and consulting firm.马丘克士发现,清醒度在饭后往往会迅速降低。马萨诸塞州斯通哈姆市(Stoneham)Circadian培训咨询公司的董事长兼首席执行长马丁#8226;尔艾德(Martin Moore-Ede)说,困顿感也往往是在下午两点左右达到顶峰,这是进行午休的好时候。Surprisingly, fatigue may boost creative powers. For most adults, problems that require open-ended thinking are often best tackled in the evening when they are tired, according to a 2011 study in the journal Thinking amp; Reasoning. When 428 students were asked to solve a series of two types of problems, requiring either analytical or novel thinking, their performance on the second type was best at non-peak times of day when they were tired, according to the study led by Mareike Wieth, an assistant professor of psychological sciences at Albion College in Michigan. (Their performance on analytical problems didn#39;t change over the course of the day.) Fatigue, Dr. Wieth says, may allow the mind to wander more freely to explore alternative solutions.让人意想不到的是,疲劳可以增加创造力。2011年《思考与推理》(Thinking amp; Reasoning)杂志上刊登的一篇研究论文指出,对多数成年人来说,需要开放性思维来思考的问题,其最佳处理时间是在晚上他们感到疲劳的时候。密歇根阿尔比恩学院(Albion College)心理学助理教授马雷克#8226;维斯(Mareike Wieth)牵头的这项研究显示,当428名学生被要求解决一系列要么需要分析能力要么需要创新思维的两种类型的问题时,他们解决第二类问题时的最好表现出现在一天中他们感到疲劳的非高峰时段。(他们解决分析性问题的表现在一整天的过程中没有变化。)维斯士说,疲劳可以让思维得到更自由的发散,去寻找不同的解决方案。Of course, everyone#39;s body clock isn#39;t the same, making it even harder to synchronize natural rhythms with daily plans. A significant minority of people operate on either of two distinctive chronotypes, research shows: Morning people tend to wake up and go to sleep earlier and to be most productive early in the day. Evening people tend to wake up later, start more slowly and peak in the evening.当然,每个人的生物钟不尽相同,这使得日常计划与生理节奏同步难上加难。研究表明,有极少数人做事时属于两种独特的时间类型:早上型的人一般比一般人更早睡早起,一天中工作最有成效的时间是在早上;晚上型的人往往醒来较晚,启动工作较慢,最佳表现时间是在晚上。Communicating with friends and colleagues online has its own optimal cycles, research shows. Sending emails early in the day helps beat the inbox rush; 6 a.m. messages are most likely to be , says Dan Zarrella, social-media scientist for HubSpot, a Cambridge, Mass., Web marketing firm, based on a study of billions of emails. #39;Email is kind of like the newspaper. You check it at the beginning of the day,#39; he says.iStockphotoHubspot的研究表明,晚上八点左右发表到Facebook上的帖子得到“喜欢”评价的最多。研究表明,在网上与朋友和同事交流也有最优周期。大清早发送电子邮件有助于避开收件高峰期。马萨诸塞州剑桥市(Cambridge)HubSpot网络营销公司的社交媒体科学家丹#8226;萨瑞拉(Dan Zarrella)在对数十亿封电子邮件进行研究之后表示,早晨六点发送的信息被阅读的可能性最大。他说,“电子邮件有点类似报纸,查阅的时间在一日之初。”Reading Twitter at 8 a.m. or 9 a.m. can start your day on a cheery note. That#39;s when users are most likely to tweet upbeat, enthusiastic messages, and least likely to send downbeat tweets steeped in fear, distress, anger or guilt, according to a study of 509 million tweets sent over two years by 2.4 million Twitter users, published last year in Science. One likely factor? #39;Sleep is refreshing#39; and leaves people alert and enthusiastic, says Michael Walton Macy, a sociology professor at Cornell University and co-author of the study. The cheeriness peaks about 1-1/2 hours later on weekends -- perhaps because people are sleeping in, Dr. Macy says.在早上八点或九点阅读推特(Twitter)上的微信息可以让你心情轻松地开始新的一天。去年其论文发表在《科学》(Science)杂志上的一项研究对240万推特用户在两年时间里发表的5.09亿条微信息进行了研究,结果显示这个时间是微用户最可能发布乐观向上、热情洋溢的信息的时候,发送恐惧、悲痛、愤怒或者内疚这些悲观情绪的可能性则最小。一个可能的因素是什么?研究论文的共同作者、康奈尔大学(Cornell University)社会学教授迈克尔#8226;沃尔顿#8226;梅西(Michael Walton Macy)说,“睡眠可以让人恢复精神”,让人头脑清醒、充满热情。梅西士说,周末时,这种开心情绪的高峰时间比平时要晚一至一个半个小时──也许是人们要睡懒觉的缘故。Other social networking is better done later in the day. If you want your tweets to be re-tweeted, post them between 3 p.m. and 6 p.m., when many people lack energy to share their own tweets and turn to relaying others#39; instead, Mr. Zarrella says. And posts to Facebook at about 8 p.m. tend to get the most #39;likes,#39; after people get home from work or finish dinner. At that time of day, they#39;re likely to turn to Facebook feeling less stressed. #39;You have less stuff to do and more time to give,#39; says Mr. Zarrella.萨瑞拉说,其它网络社交活动在晚些时候开展更好。如果你想让你发表的微被人转发,那就在下午三点到六点之间发布,这个时候很多人都没有精力发表自己的微,而更倾向于转发别人的微。晚上八点左右发表到Facebook上的帖子得到“喜欢”评价的最多,这时人们已经下班回家或吃完晚饭,他们很可能是在没有太大压力的情况下登录Facebook的。萨瑞拉说,“你没有太多的事情要做,可以配的时间较多。”Late-night drama can be found on Twitter, where emotions heat up just before bedtime, between 10 p.m. and 11 p.m., says Scott Andrew Golder, a Ph.D. candidate at Cornell University and co-author of the Twitter study. At that time, people tended to send more emotion-laden tweets, both positive and negative. Tired out by the workday, but also freed from its stresses and demands, people become #39;more alert and engaged, but also more agitated,#39; Dr. Macy says.前述推特研究项目的联合作者之一、在康奈尔大学攻读Ph.D.学位的斯科特#8226;安德鲁#8226;高德(Scott Andrew Golder)说,就在就寝前的10点至11点之间,推特可能会变成一个深夜剧场,人的情感在这里升温。在这个时间段,人们往往会发表更多富含感情的微,积极的和消极的都有。梅西士说,一天的劳累之后,卸下工作压力和要做的事情之余,人们变得“更敏感更专注,但是也会更焦躁不安。”When choosing a time of day to exercise, paying attention to your body clock can also improve results. Physical performance is usually best, and the risk of injury least, from about 3 p.m. to 6 p.m., says Michael Smolensky, an adjunct professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Texas, Austin, and lead author with Lynne Lamberg of #39;The Body Clock Guide to Better Health.#39;在选择体育锻炼时间的时候,关注一下生物钟也可以提高锻炼效果。德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校(University of Texas, Austin)的生物医学工程兼职教授迈克尔#8226;斯莫伦斯基(Michael Smolensky)说,身体活动能力最强、受伤危险最小的时候通常在下午三点到六点之间。他与琳#8226;蓝柏(Lynne Lamberg)合着了《生物钟健康指南》(The Body Clock Guide to Better Health)一书,他是第一作者。Muscle strength tends to peak between 2 p.m. and 6 p.m. at levels as much as 6% above the day#39;s lows, improving your ability to grip a club or racquet. Another boost for physical strength comes from the lungs, which function 17.6% more efficiently at 5 p.m. than at midday, according to a study of 4,756 patients led by Boris Medarov, an assistant professor of medicine at Albany Medical College in New York.iStock研究称,练习自由搏击的最佳时间是下午晚些时候。肌肉力量一般在下午两点到六点之间达到最高值,比一天中的低值时候高出6%,这时候抓握球棒或球拍的能力更强。另一个增强体力的因素是肺。根据纽约州奥尔巴尼医学院(Albany Medical College)医学助理教授鲍里斯#8226;美达洛夫(Boris Medarov)牵头的针对4,756名病人进行的一项研究,肺在下午五点时的效率比中午时分要高17.6%。Eye-hand coordination is best in late afternoon, making that a good time for racquetball or Frisbee. And joints and muscles are as much as 20% more flexible in the evening, lowering the risk of injury, Dr. Smolensky says.眼手配合最好的时候是在傍晚,这时打壁球或玩飞盘非常合适。斯莫伦斯基士说,关节和肌肉在晚间的灵活度比其它时候高20%,受伤的几率会少一些。These body rhythms hold true regardless of how much you#39;ve slept or how recently you#39;ve eaten. In a 2007 study at the University of South Carolina at Columbia, 25 experienced swimmers did six timed trials while sticking to an artificial schedule that controlled for variables like sleep, diet and other factors. The swimmers#39; performance still varied by time of day, peaking in the evening and hitting bottom at around 5 a.m.Getty Images扔飞盘也是一样。不管你睡了多久或者离吃饭时间有多近,这些机体节律都是不变的。在南卡罗来纳大学哥伦比亚分校(University of South Carolina at Columbia)2007年进行的一项研究中,25名经验丰富的游泳选手接受了六次计时测试,测试期间他们严格遵守人为制定的日程安排,对睡眠、饮食和其它变量因素进行了控制。结果游泳选手们的成绩还是因时间不同而产生了差异,晚间的成绩最好,凌晨五点左右成绩最差。Is there a best time to eat? To keep from packing on pounds, experts say, limit food consumption to your hours of peak activity. A study in Cell Metabolism last May linked disruptions of the body clock to weight gain. Researchers put two groups of mice on the same high-calorie diet. One group was allowed to eat anytime; the other group was restricted to eating only during an eight-hour period when they were normally awake and active. The mice that ate only while active were 40% leaner and had lower cholesterol and blood sugar.有没有最佳的吃饭时间?专家说,为了避免体重增加,进食的时间要限制在活动最多的时间段。去年5月刊登在《细胞代谢》(Cell Metabolism)杂志上的一篇研究论文指出,生物钟的紊乱与体重增加有关系。研究人员让两组老鼠进食相同的高热量食物,其中一组可以在任何时候进食,另一组进食的时间限制在通常清醒活跃的八个小时内。只在活跃时间内进食的老鼠脂肪要少40%,胆固醇和血糖含量也都更低。While more research is needed on humans, Dr. Kay says, the research suggests that #39;we are not only what we eat, we are when we eat.#39;凯士说,虽然还需要针对人类做更多的研究,但是这项研究表明,“不仅吃什么与我们的体重有关,什么时候吃也很有关系。” /201210/204808

Do lawyers have something important to learn from meerkats? Is their behaviour similar to that of the naked vole rat? That question might sound like the preamble to a bar joke. But not so, if Hugh Crisp, a veteran English lawyer is to be believed. 律师能向猫鼬学到什么重要的东西吗?律师们的举止与猫鼬这种不穿衣的田鼠相似吗?这个问题听起来就像一个酒吧笑话的开场白。但实际上并非如此,如果你信任资深英国律师休#8226;克里斯普(Hugh Crisp)的话。 For the first 30 years of his career, Crisp worked as a senior City of London lawyer, rising to the hallowed position of managing partner of the esteemed Freshfields law firm. But these days, Crisp has moved into a new career, teaching business, law and management skills at the Said Business School in Oxford. And that has prompted him to take an unusual track: these days he is brainstorming with zoologists at Oxford university, to analyse the secrets of what makes a 21st-century global law firm work. In particular, Crisp is convinced that the behaviour of naked vole rats, meerkats or even bees can shed a great deal of light on corporate life. 在职业生涯的前30年里,克里斯普在伦敦金融城(City of London)担任资深律师,升迁到受人尊敬的富而德律师事务所(Freshfields Law Firm)管理合伙人的神圣职位。但近来,克里斯普换了个职业,到牛津大学赛德商学院(Said Business School)教授商业、法律和管理技能课程。这让他闯出了一条不寻常的道路:最近,他在与牛津大学的动物学家们进行头脑风暴,以分析一家21世纪全球律所的成功秘诀。尤其是,克里斯普相信,猫鼬这种不穿衣的田鼠、甚至蜜蜂的行为能给企业界提供大量的借鉴。 While 21st-century students tend to presume that modern economic life (like the animal kingdom) is driven by an individualistic survival instinct and profit motive, Crisp thinks this assumption is wrong. Instead, as he explained to me last week, law firms only work if there is an intense collaboration and group spirit. He adds that this spirit is widely found in the animal kingdom too, particularly among creatures such as the meerkat. Armed with a copy of a book called An Introduction to Behavioral Ecology, this is the message he is trying to teach to business and law students. 尽管21世纪的学生倾向于假定,现代经济生活(像动物王国一样)的驱动力是个体的求生本能和盈利动机,但克里斯普认为这一假定是错误的。相反,正如他上周向我解释的那样,只有当存在通力合作和团队精神时,律师事务所才能运转得起来。他补充道,团队精神也广泛地存在于动物王国中,尤其是在猫鼬等动物当中。借助《行为生态学入门》(An Introduction to Behavioral Ecology)这本书,他正向攻读商业和法律的学生传达这一信息。 As endeavours go, this one is fascinating in its own right (even, or especially, for human lawyers). However, it is also noteworthy as part of a much bigger trend. One way to describe Crisp#39;s effort to apply zoology to business education is that it is a form of ;silo busting; - the art of taking insights that have been developed in one institutional department or intellectual silo, and applying them somewhere else. If you look across the academic world these days, as well as in corporate life, it seems that silo busting is becoming all the rage. 就努力而言,这一努力本身就是引人入胜的(甚至——或者说尤其——对人类律师来说)。然而,作为一个更大趋势的一部分,它也值得一提。克里斯普把动物学应用到商科教育的努力,可被形容为一种;打破藩篱;的形式。;打破藩篱;是指吸收机构内某一部门或者学术领域积累的知识,然后将其应用到其他领域的艺术。放眼当今的学术界和商界,你会发现打破藩篱似乎正大行其道。 Last month for example, I met senior officials from Chicago university who explained how they are scrambling to force different departments to collaborate with each other and, in particular, with the students who are studying at the university#39;s wildly popular ;entrepreneurship; course. At the Aspen Ideas festival, I listened to fascinating presentations from Joi Ito, head of the MIT Media Lab: this initiative, which grew out of the architecture department, aims to force different types of researchers and entrepreneurs to collide with each other. Or as Ito says, the endeavour that is ;not so much interdisciplinary, but anti-disciplinary;, since it busts traditional definitions of research and entrepreneurship. 比如上个月,我遇到了几位芝加哥大学的高级官员,他们解释说,他们正费尽心思迫使不同的院系开展合作,尤其是与该校深受欢迎的;创业;课程的学生开展合作。在阿斯彭理念节(Aspen Ideas festival)上,我听到了来自麻省理工学院(MIT)媒体实验室主管伊藤穰一(Joi Ito)的精演讲:源于建筑系的这项倡议,旨在力推不同类型的研究人员和创业者相互切磋。或者正如伊藤穰一所说,这一努力;与其说是跨学科的,不如说是反学科的;,因为它打破了研究与创业的传统定义。 Similar initiatives are under way elsewhere, such as the Krasnow Institute at the George Mason University in Virginia, not to mention longer-standing centres such as the Santa Fe Institute or Palo Alto Research Centre. Some foundations, such as the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, are also funding silo-busting research: one recent case from Sloan is an initiative to combine the work of marine biologists with computer programmers to create a sort of ;Google fish; system for tracking sea life. 其他机构也在采取类似的行动,比如弗吉尼亚州乔治梅森大学(George Mason University)的克拉斯洛高等研究院(Krasnow Institute),更别提圣达菲学院(Santa Fe Institute)或帕洛阿尔托研究中心(Palo Alto Research Center)等历史更悠久的研究中心了。有些基金会,比如阿尔福莱德#8226;P#8226;斯隆基金会(Alfred P. Sloan Foundation),也在资助打破藩篱方面的研究:该基金会最近的一个项目就是让海洋生物学家与计算机程序员进行合作,创建一种用于追踪海洋生物的;谷歌鱼;(Google fish)系统。 Silo busting is sping into institutional quarters as well. At the Bank of England, economists such as Andy Haldane have collaborated with zoologists such as Robert May to study financial stability. At Bristol University and Carnegie Mellon, researchers are studying the parallels between nuclear science and financial markets, in tandem with some military groups. At the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in Long Island, there have recently been brainstorming sessions between statisticians, economists and medical researchers to develop innovative ways to measure and tackle cancer care. And these are just the examples I know of - countless others undoubtedly exist, too. 打破藩篱的做法也正在蔓延至其他类型的机构。在英国央行(BoE),安迪#8226;霍尔丹(Andy Haldane)等经济学家曾与罗伯特#8226;梅(Robert May)等动物学家合作,共同研究金融稳定性问题。在布里斯托尔大学(Bristol University)和卡内基梅隆大学(Carnegie-Mellon university),研究人员们正与一些军方人员一道研究核科学与金融市场之间的相似之处。在长岛的冷泉港实验室(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory),一群统计学家、经济学家和医学研究人员最近在进行头脑风暴,试图找出衡量与应对癌症护理的创新途径。而这些不过是我所了解的例子,其他例子无疑也是数不胜数的。 If you want to be cynical, it is possible to argue that some of this activity is mere tokenism, or just a statistical aberration. After all, for every example of ;silo jumping; occurring in a university, government department or company today, there are numerous counter examples, where tunnel vision and tribalism predominate, and may be growing in power. The structure of most academic careers and research grants reinforces intellectual silos, and the growing complexity of technical operations in government and corporate bureaucracies tends to give ;specialists; entrenched power. If employees or researchers are going to jump across boundaries, they need resources, or ;slack;, and that tends to vanish at times of economic pain. 如果你要扮演怀疑人士的角色,你可以说这种行为只是表面现象,或只是一个统计偏差。毕竟,对于如今大学、政府部门和企业中的每一个;打破藩篱;的例子,人们都能找出无数反例与之对应,明;穴;底之见和同族意识仍是主流,其影响力或许还在增强。多数学术生涯乃至研究资助的架构,都会强化学科之间的;藩篱;;政府和企业机构的技术操作日趋复杂,往往增强了;专家;不可或缺的地位。如果员工或研究者打算;打破藩篱;,他们需要资源,或;空间;,而在经济不景气的时候,这两样往往都没有。 But there again, history suggests that the most powerful forms of innovation tend to happen when silo busting does occur. What defines whether a group or individual will be successful is whether somebody is mastered and trapped by silos - or can master and reorder them as needs and opportunities arise. So I, for one, applaud Crisp#39;s intellectual exploration with meerkats, and other aspects of zoology, particularly after his three-decade career. Who knows whether those mammals really can teach lawyers something; but we all have reason to look at the world with fresh eyes. Indeed, in that spirit I would love to hear of any other examples where individuals or institutions are trying to ;silo bust;; if nothing else, it could help broaden my own mind beyond the media world. Even without any vole rats. 但在这方面,历史经验似乎表明,最有影响力的创新往往诞生于;藩篱;被打破之时。集体或个人是否会成功,取决于人是被;藩篱;掌控和框死、还是能够在有需要和机会的时候掌控和重组原有的结构。因此,比方说我就认为,克里斯普有关猫鼬以及动物学其他方面的知识探索值得赞赏,他在从事律师30年后转而做这样的研究更是难能可贵。这些哺乳动物是不是真能教给律师一些东西,谁知道呢?但我们都应带着新鲜的眼光来观察世界。真的,从这个角度来说,我乐于知道更多个人或机构正试图;打破藩篱;的例子,即便没有任何其他收获,至少也有一样:这样的例子可能有助于拓宽我自己的思维,使其跳出媒体世界。这甚至不需要我研究什么田鼠。 /201208/194916

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