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东阳市中医院看脱肛多少钱杭州江干区治疗急性肠炎哪家医院好排名哪里桐庐县妇幼保健人民中医院治疗肛周脓肿价格 Many of us groan at the first signs of oncoming winter, and look for any excuse we can get to stay snuggled under those covers.当寒冷的冬季释放出来第一个信息时,我们很多人都对此欢呼声一片,这似乎为我们赖床找到了更好的借口。But hibernating indoors isn#39;t the only way to stay warm -- there are far healthier (and less isolated) ways to heat up. Check out these eight ways to stay warm this winter, many of which even come with added health benefits.一直宅着也不是唯一保暖的方法——有更多更加健康(不那么与世隔绝)的方法来升温。下面这八种方法让你这个冬天不再寒冷,有些甚至对健康还有好处。1. Spend Time Being Social1. 把时间花在交际上If you#39;re flipflopping between a night out with friends or a night under the covers, consider this: Spending time socializing could make you feel physically warmer than being alone. A study conducted by the University of Toronto researchers found that social exclusion literally feels cold. So despite the frigid temperatures and the temptation to hibernate, make an effort to spend some time with your buddies.你是愿意晚上都用来和朋友在一起,还是一晚上躲在被子里呢?考虑下这个建议吧,交际能让你身体感觉更温暖,同时也不会那样孤单。多伦多大学研究表明缺乏交际会感觉更冷。所以别再害怕低温,也别再冬眠,多花点时间和朋友们一起度过吧。2. Get Nutty2. 吃点坚果Foods that are high in healthy fats -- like nuts -- help the body regulate its temperature, which is why people whose diets are deficient in fat often report feeling cold, Self magazine reported. So grab a handful when you feel the chill (just be mindful of portion sizes) and reap the many other benefits of nuts.富含健康脂肪的食物非坚果莫属!《悦己》杂志曾报道,坚果能帮助身体保持体温,这就是为什么有些人在节食过程中若少吃脂肪类食品会觉得很冷的原因。所以当觉得冷的时候,抓一把坚果吃(只要稍微注意下脂肪含量),你能得到不少由坚果带来的好处。3. Snuggle Up3. 蜷缩起来As if you need more reason to cuddle up! Aside from the extra body heat, cuddling releases that feel-good hormone, oxytocin, that reduces stress and lowers blood pressure.蜷缩是个好办法!除去增加体内温度之外,还能释放让人感觉舒适的荷尔蒙催产素,这能缓解压力降低血压。4. Get Moving4. 动起来Make an effort to exercise and you#39;ll reap benefits beyond mood-boosting endorphins and maintaining a healthy weight.尽量多运动,你能获得不少好处,比如分泌出让心情舒畅的安多芬,以及保持体重。Fitting in a sweat session will increase blood circulation throughout your body, which can help you stay focused, handle stressful situations and, of course, warm up. That#39;s because when it#39;s cold out, circulation in parts of the body, like the fingers, decreases, which is why those extremities are often the first to feel cold when the temperature drops, Livestrong reported.健身直到出汗能增加体内的血液循环,使你精神更加集中,易于在重压之下处理事情,当然还能让你暖起来。抗癌基金会Livestrong曾报道说,当外界寒冷的时候,部分体内的循环(如手指处)都会下降,这就是为什么一旦气温下降,我们的四肢总能最先感到寒冷的原因。5. Sip On Something Steamy5. 喝热饮Drinking a hot beverage will warm you right up (and of course, there#39;s nothing like a piping-hot mug against your frigid fingers). And, if you pick the right drinks -- like teas and coffees (preferably sans the added sugar and cream) -- you could be sipping on some serious health perks:喝热饮能让你迅速暖起来(当然,滚烫的杯子也能让你的手指迅速变暖)。如果你选对了饮料,比如茶或者咖啡(通常会添加糖或奶),这对你的健康还真是好处不少。Green tea, for example, is high in antioxidant polyphenols which are able to help our bodies fight against the cell-damaging free radicals acquired through the environment. And coffee, which also contains antioxidants, has been shown in several studies to lower the risk of some cancers.比如绿茶说富含抗氧化多酚,可以帮助身体减少外界环境对细胞的辐射伤害。还有几项研究表明,咖啡富含抗氧化剂,也能有效防癌。6. Start With Soup6. 先喝汤Like tea, a hot soup can warm you from the inside out. But it could do more than help you heat up -- soup is filling, which means it could help if you#39;re trying to cut calories. A 2007 Penn State study found that participants who first ate soup before their lunch entree reduced their calorie intake by 20 percent, compared to their soup-less counterparts. Start with a broth-based, fiber-filled (that means veggies!) soup to cut your calorie-intake and warm up.和茶一样,热汤也能让你从里到外暖洋洋。但它不仅能让你暖起来:汤还能填饱肚子,如果你正在减肥,想要减少卡路里的摄入,那么汤能帮大忙。2007的一项研究表明,与那些饭前不喝汤的人相比,中午吃饭之前先喝汤的人能有效减少20%卡路里的摄入,喝一碗充满维生素(也就是蔬菜)的汤,减少卡路里的摄入,同时暖和自己吧。7. Spice It Up7. 加点作料Incorporate some more herbs and spices into your next dish and you#39;ll heat up while adding some extra flava#39;.在菜里加点草药或者香料,给菜增添滋味的同时,还能让你暖和身体。Ginger, in particular, can get blood circulation going and the body temperature up, WebMD reported. It warms you up from the inside美国网路医生网站称,姜尤其能促进血液循环,使得体内温度上升。它能让你从体内暖起来。8. Take A Warm Bath8. 洗个热水澡Escape the cold with a warm soak in the tub -- and sleep better, too.好好泡个热水澡,这样能帮助你入眠。That#39;s because our body temperatures naturally cool down around the time we should go to sleep. Health.com reports that taking a nice warm bath a couple hours before bedtime can raise your body temperature, prompting a greater drop in body temperature before bed -- helping you feel more relaxed.我们睡觉的时候体内的温度一般都会下降。健康网站称睡觉之前洗个热水澡能提高体内的温度,这样上床之前体内的温度会降到更加合适的水平,会使你觉得更加放松。 /201212/213107China’s air pollution has cut life expectancy by 5.5 years in the north of the country and caused higher rates of lung cancer, heart attacks and strokes, according to a groundbreaking study.一项突破性研究显示,中国的空气污染已使中国北方居民的预期寿命减少5.5年,还提升了肺癌、心脏病和中风的发病率。The worsening toxic smog in northern China became an issue of national concern after air pollution spiked to record levels in Beijing in January. Worried citizens have made runs on air filters and face masks, and “pollution domes” that provide filtered air for sports activities are increasingly common.今年1月北京的空气污染程度飙升至创纪录水平后,中国北方不断恶化的有毒雾霾成为一个举国关切的问题。忧心忡忡的居民抢购空气过滤器和口罩,为体育活动提供过滤空气的“空气净化穹顶”也日益常见。But the body of scientific research on the health impact is slim because there is little historical precedent for prolonged exposure to such high levels of air pollution.但是,有关健康影响的科研文献迄今较少,因为历史上很少有这样持续暴露于高度空气污染的先例。Using decades of pollution data from across China, the new study, co-authored by professors from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the US, Tsinghua University and Peking University in Beijing, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, calculates that air pollution in the north caused the loss of 2.5bn years of human life expectancy during the 1990s.新的研究利用中国各地数十年期间的污染数据,并由美国麻省理工学院(MIT)、北京的清华大学和北京大学,以及耶路撒冷希伯来大学(Hebrew University of Jerusalem)的多名教授联名发表报告。据这项研究估算,华北的空气污染已在上世纪90年代总共减少25亿年的人类预期寿命。The findings show the health impact of air pollution is far higher than previously believed.研究结果显示,空气污染的健康影响远高于此前的认识。“This is the first time anyone has got the data to show how severe long-term pollution affects human health, both in terms of life expectancy and the types of disease,” said Li Hongbin, an economics professor at Tsinghua University and a co-author of the study.“这是第一次有人拿出数据显示,长期污染多么严重地影响人体健康,无论是就预期寿命还是就疾病类型而言,”清华大学经济学教授、此项研究的联名作者之一李宏彬表示。“It shows how high the cost of pollution is in terms of human life – and that it is worth it for the government to spend more money to solve the pollution issue, even if we have to sacrifice growth.”“它显示出,就人类寿命而言,污染的代价有多高,这进而说明,政府加大投入、解决污染问题是值得的,即便我们必须牺牲一些增长。”Mr Li estimates the shorter life expectancy identified by the study in northern China is equivalent to reducing the work force there by one-eighth.李宏彬表示,这项研究发现的华北居民预期寿命缩短,相当于把当地劳动力人数削减八分之一。China’s breakneck economic development during the past three decades has been accompanied by the widesp degradation of air, soil and water. Environmental worries are now a growing source of social unrest and public protest, particularly because of health concerns.过去30年期间,中国经济突飞猛进的同时,也出现了空气、土壤和水源的大范围退化。环境担忧,尤其是健康关切,如今日趋成为社会不安定和公开抗议的来源。In response, Beijing has tightened environmental laws and regulations but these efforts have so far had little impact in reversing decades of damage.作为回应,北京方面收紧了环保法律法规,但这些努力在逆转数十年的损害方面迄今收效甚微。The study, published on Monday in the US journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, compares populations north and south of the Huai River, which runs through central China. North of the river, the government distributed free coal for heating in winter, resulting in higher rates of air pollution compared with areas to the south.研究报告周一发表于《美国国家科学院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, PNAS)。这项研究比较了横贯中国中部的淮河南北的居民。在淮河以北,政府免费发放煤炭用于冬季取暖,造成这些地区与南方相比空气污染程度较高。“What we found is that people who live just north of the river have life expectancy of five and a half years [less],” said Michael Greenstone, a professor of environmental economics at MIT and a co-author of the study.“我们发现,生活在这条河北岸的人,预期寿命就少了5年半,”麻省理工学院环境经济学教授、此项研究的联名作者之一迈克尔#8226;格林斯通(Michael Greenstone)表示。“Part of the novelty of this study is that this was conducted with data on actual pollution measurements in China, and actual health and life expectancy in China. It is not an extrapolation,” he said.“这项研究的部分新颖之处在于,它是根据中国实际污染测量数据,以及中国的实际健康和预期寿命数据进行的。没有使用外推法,”他表示。Using pollution data from 1981-2000 and health data from 1991-2000, the study found that an increase of 100 micrograms of total particulate matter per cubic metre (a measure of air pollution), corresponded to a three-year reduction in average life expectancy.使用1981年至2000年的污染数据和1991年至2000年的健康数据,这项研究发现,每立方米空气所含的总颗粒物(空气污染的一种衡量标准)增加100微克,就对应于平均预期寿命减少3年。Most previous calculations of the health cost of Chinese pollution are extrapolated from research conducted in the US, where overall pollution levels are much lower.此前,有关中国污染造成的健康代价的多数估算,都是根据美国进行的研究推算出来的,但美国的总体污染水平低得多。 /201307/247223杭州江干区治疗混合痔医院

杭州拱墅区肛肠医院这是关于一个女孩、女人、女性的成长漫画On A Claire Day:亲情、友情、爱情;家庭,朋友、婚姻,工作,生活……一切的一切~今日嘱咐:我们总是容易“高兴滴太早”…都说“谁笑到最后,谁笑的最好”,最早笑的那个,大家最后笑的也许就是你…译者:koogle内容来自: /201307/247580余杭区治疗脱肛多少钱 杭州肛肠医博医院看肠道疾病好不好

拱墅区治疗肛门瘙痒医院In April 1815, the most powerful volcanic blast in recorded history shook the planet in a catastrophe so vast that 200 years later, investigators are still struggling to grasp its repercussions. It played a role, they now understand, in icy weather, agricultural collapse and global pandemics — and even gave rise to celebrated monsters.1815年4月,有史以来最强烈的火山爆发令这颗星球陷入巨大的灾难,200年后,研究者们仍在努力搞清它的后果。现在他们明白,这场爆发对气候变冷、农业崩溃和全球流行病都有影响,甚至导致了某些著名怪物的出现。Around the lush isles of the Dutch East Indies — modern-day Indonesia — the eruption of Mount Tambora killed tens of thousands of people. They were burned alive or killed by flying rocks, or they died later of starvation because the heavy ash smothered crops.在荷属东印度群岛(也就是如今的印度尼西亚)郁郁葱葱的海岛,坦拉火山(Mount Tambora)的爆发令数万人丧生。他们遭到活埋、被从天而降的石块砸死,浓重的火山灰令庄稼颗粒无收,不少人更是死于其后的饥荒。More surprising, investigators have found that the giant cloud of minuscule particles sp around the globe, blocked sunlight and produced three years of planetary cooling. In June 1816, a blizzard pummeled upstate New York. That July and August, killer frosts in New England ravaged farms. Hailstones pounded London all summer.更让人惊讶的是,研究者们发现,火山微粒形成的巨大云层蔓延全球,遮蔽阳光,造成了为期三年的全球气候变冷。1816年6月,一场暴风雪侵袭了纽约北部。当年的7月和8月,新英格兰的农场受到霜灾的致命破坏。伦敦整个夏天都遭到雹灾。A recent history of the disaster, “Tambora: The Eruption that Changed the World,” by Gillen D’Arcy Wood, shows planetary effects so extreme that many nations and communities sustained waves of famine, disease, civil unrest and economic decline. Crops failed globally.吉伦·达尔西·伍德(Gillen D’Arcy Wood)的新著《坦拉:改变世界的火山爆发》(Tambora: The Eruption that Changed the World)追溯了那段灾难的历史,展现它严重的全球影响,因为这场灾难,全世界很多国家和社区都遭到一波接一波的饥荒、疾病、社会动荡和经济衰退。全球农作物都出现减产。“The year without a summer,” as 1816 came to be known, gave birth not only to paintings of fiery sunsets and tempestuous skies but two genres of gothic fiction. The freakish progeny were Frankenstein and the human vampire, which have loomed large in art and literature ever since.1816年是“没有夏天的一年”,那一年不仅诞生了无数以烈日和暴风雪为题材的油画,也诞生了两大类哥特小说:这两个畸形的产物分别是弗兰肯斯坦的怪物和人形吸血鬼,它们至今仍在艺术与文学世界扮演着重要角色。“The paper trail,” said Dr. Wood, a University of Illinois professor of English, “goes back again and again to Tambora.”伍德士是伊利诺斯大学的英语教授,他说“相关书面记载可以一再追溯到坦拉”。The gargantuan blast — 100 times bigger than Mount St. Helens’s — and its ensuing worldwide pall have been the subject of increasing study over the years as scientists have sought to comprehend not only the planet’s climatological past but the future likelihood of such global disasters.坦拉火山爆发比圣海伦斯山火山爆发剧烈十倍,为整个世界蒙上了一层尸衣,后世对它的研究日益增多,科学家们希望掌握的不仅仅是地球过去的气候学资料,也希望能了解未来是否会有可能发生类似的全球性灾难。Clive Oppenheimer, a volcanologist at the University of Cambridge, who has studied the Tambora catastrophe, put the chance of a similar explosion in the next half-century as relatively low — perhaps 10 percent. But the consequences, he added, could run extraordinarily high.克莱夫·奥芬海默(Clive Oppenheimer)是剑桥大学的火山学家,一直研究坦拉火山灾难,他认为,在接下来的50年里,发生类似爆发的可能性非常低,大约只有10%。但是一旦发生,其后果会相当严重。“The modern world,” Dr. Oppenheimer said, “is far from immune to the potentially catastrophic impacts.”“现代世界远远没有发展到不受灾难影响的地步,” 奥芬海默士说。Before it exploded, Tambora was the tallest peak in a land of cloudy summits. It lay atop the tropic isle of Sumbawa, its spires rising nearly three miles. Long dormant, the mountain was considered a home to gods. Villages dotted its slopes, and nearby farmers grew rice, coffee and pepper.在爆发之前,坦拉是这片云雾缭绕的山地中的最高峰。它位于热带的松巴哇岛上,顶峰将近三英里高(一英里约合1609米——译注)。这座火山蛰伏已久,被认为是神祇的居所。山坡上星星点点地分布着村庄,附近的农民种植稻米、咖啡和胡椒。On the evening of April 5, 1815, according to contemporary accounts, flames shot from its summit and the earth rumbled for hours. The volcano then fell silent.根据当代的说法,1815年4月5日,火焰从顶峰冒出,大地开始颤抖,长达数个小时,之后火山重新陷入寂静。Five days later, the peak exploded in a deafening roar of fire, rock and boiling ash that was heard hundreds of miles away. Flaming rivers of molten rock ran down the slopes, destroying tropic forests and villages. Days later, still raging but by then hollow, the mountain collapsed, its height suddenly diminished by a mile.五天后,山峰爆发出火焰、岩石与热灰,声音震耳欲聋,几百英里外都能听到。熔岩沿着山坡流淌,毁坏了热带雨林和村庄。几天后,火山还在活跃,但内部已经空了,山体开始塌陷,高耸的山峰最后只剩一英里高。Locally, an estimated 100,000 people died. Sumbawa never recovered.当地有大约10万人丧生。松巴哇岛再也未能复原。The repercussions were global, but no one realized that the widesp death and mayhem arose from an eruption halfway around the world. What emerged was regional folklore. New Englanders called 1816 “eighteen hundred and froze to death.” Germans called 1817 the year of the beggar. These and many other local episodes remained unknown or unconnected.灾难带来了全球性后果,但是没有人意识到蔓延全球的死亡与灾难发源于地球中部的一场火山爆发。只有地区性的民间说法流传开来。新英格兰人说1816年是“冻死人年”。德国人说1817年是“乞丐之年”。这些,还有其他很多地方的零星说法一直未能连贯起来。It was scientists who began to stitch together the big picture, especially the peculiar link between fiery volcanism and icy weather. An overarching goal was to separate natural climate fluctuations from those of human origin. One after another, studies came back to New England and its frigid summer of 1816.是科学家们开始慢慢凑出宏大的图景,特别是凶猛的火山活动与寒冷气候之间的关系。一个重要研究目的是区分开自然的气候波动与人为影响的气候变化。一项接一项的研究都可以追溯到到新英格兰,以及1816年那里寒冷的夏天。Dr. Wood expanded the portrait in his book, which is due out in paperback next month. It draws on hundreds of scientific papers as well as Dr. Wood’s knowledge of 19th-century literature to lay bare three years of planetary mayhem as well as the origins of fictional demons.伍德士的书将在下月出版平装版,他在书中展开了这幅画卷。它建立在数百份科学文献基础之上,伍德对19世纪文学的知识也颇有裨益,它生动地揭示出为期三年的全球灾害,乃至虚构怪物的起源。“My interest was to understand a global event,” Dr. Wood said in an interview, “and that meant serious detective work in lots of unfamiliar archives.” Five years of inquiry took him to China, Europe and India.“我的兴趣是理解一件全球事件,”伍德士在接受采访时说,“这意味着利用许多陌生的资料,做严肃的研究工作。”他在中国、欧洲与印度做了为期五年的调查。It also transported him to Tambora, where he braved leeches and razor-sharp leaves to peer across its yawning caldera, four miles from rim to rim.他还去了坦拉,不顾水蛭与刀锋般尖锐的草叶,穿过直径长达四英里的火山口。The exploding mountain, the book notes, heaved some 12 cubic miles of earthen matter to a height of more than 25 miles. While coarse particles soon rained out, finer ones traveled the high winds in a sping cloud. “It passed,” Dr. Wood wrote, “across both south and north poles, leaving a telltale sulfate imprint on the ice for paleoclimatologists to discover more than a century and a half later.”书中写道,火山爆发时喷出了12立方英里的火山灰,喷射高度达到25英里。粗大的微粒开始落向地面之时,细小的微粒已经随着云朵在高空气流中旅行了。伍德士写道,“它们最远一直来到南北极,在冰上留下泄露行踪的硫酸盐痕迹,因此一个半世纪之后,考古气象学家们才能发现它们的存在。”The global veil, high above rain clouds, reflected much sunlight back into space. So the planet cooled. The pall, Dr. Wood said, also spawned tempests far below.它们就这样潜藏在高高的雨云之中,为全世界蒙上了一层面纱,把大量阳光反射回太空之中。于是整个地球就变冷了。伍德士说,这层“尸衣”还为下界带来了暴风骤雨。His book reprints an 1816 oil painting of Weymouth Bay, a sheltered cove on England’s south coast, by John Constable — the sky above churning with dark clouds. “Everywhere,” Dr. Wood said, “the volcanic winds blew hard.” He noted that both history and computer models speak of fierce storms back then.书中收录了一幅1816年约翰·康斯太勃尔(John Constable)的油画,画面上是英国南部海岸的避风港韦茅斯湾,天空中笼罩着一片阴云。伍德士写道,“到处都有火山引起的大风。”他指出,历史记载与电脑模型都表明当时有巨大的风暴。The particles high in the atmosphere also produced spectacular sunsets, as detailed in the famous paintings of J.M.W. Turner, the English landscape pioneer. His vivid red skies, Dr. Wood remarked, “seem like an advertisement for the future of art.”高空大气中的火山微粒还制造出壮观的日落景象,被英国风景画的先驱者J·M·W·透纳(J.M.W. Turner)详细捕捉在笔下。伍德士说,他画中生动的红色天空“就像是艺术之未来的广告。”The story also comes alive in local dramas, none more important for literary history than the birth of Frankenstein’s monster and the human vampire. That happened on Lake Geneva in Switzerland, where some of the most famous names of English poetry had gone on a summer holiday.世界各地都出现不少轶事,对于世界文学史而言,最重要的莫过与弗兰肯斯坦的怪物与人型吸血鬼。这件事发生在瑞士的日内瓦湖畔,当时英国诗坛上最重要的几个人在那里消夏。By 1816, Switzerland, landlocked and famously rugged, was beginning to reel from the bad weather and failed crops. Starving mobs stormed bakeries after b prices soared. The book recounts a priest’s distress: “It is terrifying to see these walking skeletons devour the most repulsive foods with such avidity.”1816年,多山的内陆国家瑞士也被卷入恶劣气候与庄稼减产之中。面包价格上升,挨饿的暴民冲进面包房抢劫。书中引用一位传教士沮丧的话语:“看到那些行尸走肉贪婪地大口吞吃最低劣的食物,实在太可怕了。”That June, the cold and stormy weather sent the English tourists inside a lakeside villa to warm themselves by a fire and exchange ghost stories. Mary Shelley, then 18, was part of a literary coterie that included Percy Shelley, her future husband, as well as Lord Byron. Wine flowed, as did laudanum, a form of opium. Candles flickered.那年六月,寒冷多雨的天气让这几个居住在湖畔公寓的英国旅行者们围在火边取暖,讲鬼故事。18岁的玛丽·雪莱(Mary Shelley)和她未来的丈夫珀西·雪莱(Percy Shelley)以及拜伦勋爵(Lord Byron)同属于一个文学小团体。烛光闪烁,他们在一起喝酒,吃鸦片酊。In this moody atmosphere, Mary Shelley came up with her lurid tale of Frankenstein, which she published two years later. And Lord Byron hit on the outline of the modern vampire tale, published later by a compatriot as “The Vampyre.” The freakish weather also inspired Byron’s apocalyptic poem “Darkness.”就在这样一种氛围之下,玛丽·雪莱构思了关于弗兰肯斯坦的可怕故事,并于两年后出版。拜伦勋爵则想出了一个现代吸血鬼故事的大纲,后来被他的一个同胞(拜伦的秘书兼私人医生John William Polidori——译注)拿去,以《吸血鬼》(The Vampyre)之名出版。诡异的天气还激发拜伦写下了末世氛围的诗篇《黑暗》(Darkness)。Dr. Wood’s book documents many other repercussions of the planetary chill, devoting a chapter to a cholera pandemic of 1817 that began in India and globally killed tens of millions of people. Dr. Wood attributes its rise to a deadly combination of monsoonal changes and pounding rains — a main theory of leading cholera detectives.伍德的书记录了全球严寒带来的许多影响,其中一章是关于1817年于印度兴起,最终波及全世界的霍乱,它导致全球数千万人丧生。伍德士认为,疾病的流行是因为季风变化与倾盆大雨这个致命组合——这也是顶尖霍乱研究者的主要理论。The pandemic sp and eventually reached the Dutch East Indies. On Java alone it killed an estimated 125,000 people — more, Dr. Wood noted, “than died in the volcanic eruption itself.”蔓延的疾病最终来到荷属东印度群岛。仅在爪哇,就有大约12.5万人以上丧生。伍德写道:“这比火山爆发中死去的人还要多。”He also profiles the wintry chill in Yunnan Province in southern China, a land of mountains and jungles roamed by tigers and elephants. Rice crops there quickly failed, and famine gnawed deep for years. In July 1816, Dr. Wood noted, the province had “unprecedented snows.”他还写到中国南部云南省遭遇冬天般的严寒,这里布满山脉和雨林,有老虎和大象出没。稻米种植很快遭到破坏,饥荒延续数年。1816年7月,伍德士写道,这个省份“史无前例地下了雪”。The poet, Li Yuyang, who was 32 as Tambora began its global rampage, wrote of cold downpours and flash flooding in “A Sigh for Autumn Rain.”坦拉所带来的后果肆虐全球之时,诗人李于阳32岁,他把冰冷的倾盆大雨和大洪水写进了自己的诗《秋雨叹》。Dr. Wood closes with a portrait of the eastern ed States in 1816, focusing first on upstate New York. One day that June, four young classmates walked to school, most barefoot. Then a blizzard struck. Dismissed early, the children ran for their lives as the snow rose to their knees. They succeeded in reaching warm cabins and fires.最后,伍德士对1816年的美国东部进行了描述,首当其冲的是纽约北部。6月的一天,四个年轻人赤着脚去上学。然后来了一阵暴风雪。孩子们提早放学,积雪没过了他们的膝盖,只得奔跑求生。最后终于冲进生着火的温暖小屋。For Thomas Jefferson, the pain lasted longer. The retired third president of the ed States, at his estate in Virginia, faced a disastrous summer in 1816 because of the remarkably short growing season. The next year was just as bad.托马斯·杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)的痛苦持续得更为长久。这位美国第三任总统退休后住在弗吉尼亚州的宅邸,1816年夏天,作物歉收令他损失惨重。翌年还是同样糟糕。In a letter, Jefferson expressed concern about the possible ruin of his Monticello farm “if the seasons should, against the course of nature hitherto observed, continue constantly hostile to our agriculture.”在一封信里,杰斐逊担心 “如果目前这种违背自然规律的时令延续下去,一直对农业不利,” 他的蒙蒂塞洛农场可能会倒掉。The countless victims and occasional beneficiaries of Tambora’s fury were oblivious to the volcanic roots of their circumstances, Dr. Wood noted, making the challenge of writing about it formidable and “occasionally mind-bending.”伍德士指出,坦拉之怒的无数受害者与个别受益者根本不知道火山爆发对自身环境的影响,这对写作构成了极大挑战,“有时候要绞尽脑汁”。More generally, he said, the revelation of global volcanic ruin — a portrait 200 years in the making — offers a kind of meditation on the difficulty of uncovering the subtle effects of climate change, whether its origins lie in nature’s fury or the invisible byproducts of human civilization.他说,在更多时候,火山爆发在全球造成的破坏——这是一幅纵贯200年的画卷——令他想到,发现气候变化的微妙影响是多么困难,不管这影响是来自大自然的愤怒,抑或人类文明无形的副产品。It is, Dr. Wood remarked, “hard to see and no less difficult to imagine.”伍德士说,这一切“很难看到,同样也很难想像”。 /201509/397248 浙江省中医院割痔疮价格义乌市中心医院治疗直肠脱垂价格




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