江苏纹眉毛多少钱飞度新闻免费问

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年04月20日 22:19:29
0评论
Song Dynasty宋朝Western Xia西夏Western Xia, was the kingdom of the Tibetan-speaking Tanguts tribes that was established in the 11th century and flourished through the early 13th century until it was conquered by the Mongols of the Yuan dynasty.西夏,是由将藏语的党项部落在11世纪建立的国家,它在13世纪早期兴盛发展直到被蒙古人建立的元朝征。It was located in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Kansu (Gansu) and Shensi (Shaanxi).它位于现在中国西北部甘肃省和陕西省。Occupying the area along the trade route between Central Asia and the West,党项占据了连接中亚和西亚之间贸易之路的一片区域,the Tangut were formally a tributary state of first the Song and then the Jin.它原先是宋朝后来是金朝的朝贡国。In actuality, they were defacto independent, and the interaction belween the Jin, the Song, and the Western Xia is of interest to historians of diplomacy事实上,它们实际上是独立的,研究外交的历史学家对于金、宋和西夏这三个国家的关系很感兴趣,because they are an example of diplomatic relations between states of defacto equal power.因为它们是国家之间外交关系。 /201511/406474

After consolidating the sovereignty, Qi and the nobles began to enslave and exploit the people, and indulge in extravagant lives.当夏王朝的统治基本稳定之后,以启为首的贵族统治者肆意奴役和剥削广大庶民群众,过着骄奢淫逸的生活。When Qi died, Tai Kang succeeded to the throne. Like his father, Tai Kang sought ease and comfort, and did not care for state affairs, therefore the internal conflicts intensified and the rebellions occurred continuously.启死后,由其子太康继位,太康像其父 一样也沉湎于声色酒食之中,政事不修,促使内部矛盾日趋尖锐,外部四夷背叛。Initially, it was the rebellion of the king^ five brothers, then the insurgence of commoners.先有“五子”(太康的兄弟五人)争立,接着又有武观叛乱,百姓就借此展开了强烈的反抗斗争。Hou Yi, known as a good archer from the Youqiong clan of the Eastern Yi, witnessed the multiple conflicts. When Tai Kang went hunting for several months, he took the opportunity to command his troops and capture the capital Anyi ( the present-day Anyi County in Shanxi).东夷族有穷氏首领后羿看到夏王朝内部矛盾重重,藉太康外出狩猎数月不归之时,率兵夺取了都城安邑(今山西夏县西北)。TaiKang was unexpected to the accident, and couldn,t return home, so he had to exile and finally died in the foreign land.太康猝不及防,无法回归,只得流亡,最终死在异地他乡。After the victory, Hou Yi dared not to take the throne immediately. He made Zhong Kang, the younger brother of Tai Kang the King.后羿逐走太康取得胜利后,不敢马上取而代之,于是扶持太康的兄弟仲康继位。Zhong Kang was weak and became the puppet of Hou Yi.仲康懦弱,当了傀儡。When Zhong Kang died, his Son, Hou Xiang was on the run.仲康死后,其子相继位。Hou Yi thought it was the right time, then he drove Hou Xiang away and became the King.羿认为时机已到,遂把相赶走,自己登上王位。This is the so-called the lost of country by Tai Kang and the replacement of Xia by Hou Yi in history books.这就是史书上称作“太康失国”和 “后羿代夏”的故事。Shao Kang9s Restoration of Xia: Hou Yi was a fatuous ruler, too. The minister Hanzhuo took over power and killed him as well as his family members. Then, Hanzhuo ordered his son Jiao to kill Hou Xiang, who was taking refuge with the Zhenguan and Zhenxun clans.少康中兴:后羿也是昏君,大臣寒浞夺取王位,杀死后羿及其家人,并且下令他的儿子浇追杀相。被逐后的相投靠了斟灌氏、斟寻氏部族。Jiao defeated Zhenguan and Zhenxun clans and killed Hou Xiang.浇率兵打败了斟灌氏部族,杀死了相。Xiang#39;s wife, aly pregnant, avoided Jiao#39;searching and arrest, climbed through a hole in the wall and escaped to her parents, home of the Youreng tribe, where she later bore her son Shao Kang.此时,相的妻子已身怀有。她避开浇的搜捕,从墙洞中偷偷爬出去,投奔到娘家仍氏,并在那里生下儿子少康。Growing up in a hard condition, Shao Kang studied diligently and aspired to revenge.Eventually, with the help of his grandfather and the loyal tribes, he expelled the treacherous court official and his son, restoring the country.少康在艰苦的环境中长大,奋发努力学习,立志复仇雪耻。最终在外祖父的帮助以及忠心夏朝的部落持下,少 康驱逐杀死大逆不道的奸臣以及他的儿子,中兴夏朝。With the renaissance, Shao Kang was at pains to handle government affairs, sending army to beat off insurgent troops of minorities, expanding the territory, improving the political system and laying foundation for the prosperity of the Xia Dynasty.少康完成复国大业后,勤于政务,派遣军队打退少数民族叛军的侵扰,扩大疆土,进一步完善政治制度,奠定了 夏朝盛兴的基础。It was about 40 years from Taikang to Shao Kang.由太康到少康,经历了大约40年。The tortuous and complicated struggle illustrated that there were not only class struggles but also fights inside the ruling group as well when a state was founded.这一曲折而复杂的斗争事实说明,当国家开始建立的时候,就已存在着激烈的阶级斗争和统治集团内部的斗争。The Xia Dynasty could restore its dominion and gain further development, only because it had relatively solid social foundation.夏王朝因为拥有比较深厚的社会基础,才能恢复它的统治,并取得进一步的发展。 /201510/407414

  In an analysis of the challenges that gallerists are facing, Marc Spiegler, the global director of the Art Basel fairs, suggested last month that about 80 percent of the artists selling well today would be “basically unsellable” in 20 years.巴塞尔艺术展全球总监马克·斯皮勒(Marc Spiegler)上月在一份分析画廊所面对挑战的文章中认为,当今销售情况良好的艺术家之中,有80%可能会在未来20年里“基本上什么都卖不出去”。But that is perfectly fine, Mr. Spiegler wrote in The Art Newspaper, “because collecting contemporary art is about engaging with the zeitgeist.”但这完全没有问题,斯皮勒在《艺术报》(The Art Newspaper)上写道,“因为收藏当代艺术已经成了时代精神的一部分。”It remains to be seen whether such a result will be fine with the thousands of buyers who have been led to believe that contemporary art is also a lucrative investment.对于成千上万名相信当代艺术是一种利润丰厚的投资的买家们来说,这样的结果是否能够接受尚不分明。But Mr. Spiegler’s pronouncement, coming at what he characterized as “a starkly transitional moment in the art world,” is a timely reminder of the extent to which collecting is, and always has been, a gamble.但是斯皮勒的宣言正好在一个被他称之为“艺术界一个非常关键的过度时刻”做出,它及时地提醒人们,艺术收藏是、且一直都是一种。“People buy contemporary art for a range of reasons,” said Guy Jennings, the managing director of the Fine Art Fund Group, an art investment and advisory company in London. “And they aren’t under any illusions that all their artists are going to go up in price.”“人们出于各种各样的原因购买当代艺术品,”伦敦艺术投资与顾问公司“美术基金集团”(Fine Art Fund Group)总经理盖伊·詹宁斯(Guy Jennings)说。“他们并不会幻想买下的所有艺术家作品都会升值。”“But we have become more financially minded,” he said. “At times like these, buyers will be more cautious and look to artists they think will survive.”“但是我们也变得愈来愈有经济头脑,”他说。“像这样的时候,买家们会更加谨慎,寻找他们认为可以生存下来的艺术家。”Last week, as the financial markets were buffeted by concerns about a global slowdown, works by hundreds of postwar and contemporary artists were offered at London’s annual February auctions and exhibitions. With the economic outlook seeming increasingly bearish, which names should buyers back in the face of a possible downturn?上个星期,对全球经济放缓的担忧严重地打击了金融市场,与此同时,在伦敦年度的二月拍卖与展会上,展出了数百幅战后与当代艺术家的作品。经济前景日益下跌,面临可能的低迷期,买家们应该关注哪些名字呢?The results in London offered some clues. At Sotheby’s contemporary sale on Wednesday night, individual prices far above presale estimates created a sense that the market was still booming. Examples were the 16.1 million pounds, or about .2 million, given by a telephone bidder for Lucian Freud’s 1961 portrait of his pregnant 17-year-old lover, Bernadine Coverley, valued at £7 million to £10 million, and the £3.1 million for “The Sunflowers in 1937,” a colossal 2014 faux van Gogh painting by the highly regarded Adrian Ghenie.伦敦拍卖会的结果显示出了一些端倪。周三晚上,苏富比的当代艺术品拍卖会上,几个单件作品的成交价格远高出预估价,让人觉得这个市场还在繁荣期。比如一位电话买家以1610万镑(约合2320万美元),拍下了卢西安·弗洛伊德(Lucian Freud)1961年为怀的17岁恋人伯娜丁·卡芙利(Bernadine Coverley)绘制的画像,该作品预估价在700万至1000万英镑;而巨幅梵高仿作《1937年的向日葵》(The Sunflowers in 1937)拍出了310万英镑,作者是极受好评的艾德里安·格尼(Adrian Ghenie)。Mr. Ghenie’s reputation was enhanced last year when he represented his native Romania at the Venice Biennale. Acquired by its seller less than two years ago from Galerie Judin in Berlin, “The Sunflowers” compellingly combines references to Nazi-era “degenerate art” with a monumental wall presence. Ten bidders pushed the price to more than five times the estimate of £400,000 to £600,000, reflecting the lengthy waiting list for Mr. Ghenie’s small output.格林去年代表祖国罗马尼亚参加双年展,因此声誉有了极大增长。不到两年前,这幅《向日葵》被这次的卖家从柏林的Galerie Judin画廊买下,它惊人地结合了对纳粹时期“堕落艺术”的映射,以及一面纪念墙的形象。十个拍卖者数次提价,把价格从预估的40万到60万英镑提高了五倍,表明格林的作品有多么供不应求。Elsewhere, it seemed like wealthy buyers — and sellers — were keeping one eye on the high-end art and another on the financial market indexes.此外,似乎富有的买家与卖家一面关注高端艺术市场,一面也在关注金融市场指数。Overall numbers at Sotheby’s were down sharply. The 55-lot sale brought in a total of £69.5 million, 44 percent lower than the £123.5 million achieved at the company’s equivalent contemporary auction last February. Twenty-two percent of the lots were left unsold.苏富比的拍卖总额出现大幅下跌。这场拍卖会提供了55件拍品,总共拍出了6950万英镑,和公司去年2月在地位同等的当代艺术品拍卖会上拍出的1.235亿英镑相比,下跌了44%。其中22%拍品没有拍出去。Proceeds this year were dented by the 11th-hour withdrawal of a Gerhard Richter abstract valued at £14 million to £20 million. Neither the auction house nor a third party had been willing to risk guaranteeing the sale of such a high-value work in the current environment.影响了今年收益的,主要是在最后关头的时候,一件预估价为1400万英镑到2000万英镑的格哈德·里希特(Gerhard Richter)的抽象作品没有拍出去。拍卖行与第三方都不愿冒险担保这样一件高价作品在如今的环境下能卖出去。“Rightly or wrongly, the capital markets determine confidence levels,” said Andrew Terner, a private dealer based in New York. “It’s the psychology of the moment. The timing has to be right.”“不管是对的还是错的,资本市场决定了信用等级,”纽约私人经纪商安德鲁·特纳(Andrew Terner)说,“这是当下的心理。时机必须正确。”In midday New York trading on Friday, , Sotheby’s stock price was at .07 after having dropped 17.5 percent on Thursday.周五的纽约午盘上,苏富比的股价是20.07美元,比周四降低了17.5%。Year-on-year results at Christie’s on Thursday evening were even more bearish. The £58.1 million total achieved from its contemporary sale was down 50 percent from the February 2015 auction.佳士得周四晚的拍卖会结果与去年同期相比更是凄惨。这场当代艺术拍卖会总共拍出了5810万英镑,比去年2月的当代艺术拍卖会下跌了50%。But if, in general terms, buying museum-endorsed art from the last 100 years — like a Richter or a Ghenie — still remains almost the only game in town for the wealthiest art collectors, what about the more speculative market for artists with emerging reputations?但是,如果总的来说,过去100年里,购买有物馆担保的艺术品(如里希特和格尼的作品)仍然是富有艺术收藏家唯一的游戏,那么针对声誉鹊起的新艺术家们的相对更投机的市场又怎么样呢?On Wednesday, Phillips held a day sale of 178 lots of 20th-century and contemporary art, and conspicuous by their absence were the “process-based” abstract paintings that had been the subject of lucrative resales at Phillips in the boom year of 2014. Once-hot names like Lucien Smith, Mark Flood and David Ostrowski were not in the catalog, and a small 2014 abstract by Dan Rees, “Gravelmaster,” estimated at £6,000 to £8,000, did not attract a buyer.星期三,菲利普斯(Phillips)在日间拍卖会上拍出了178件20世纪与当代艺术品,引人注目的是,拍品中没有被称为“流程基本”的几位抽象画家作品,它们曾在2014年的好年头里成为菲利普斯的高额预拍品。卢西安·史密斯(Lucien Smith)、马克·弗拉德(Mark Flood)与大卫·奥斯特洛夫斯基(David Ostrowski)等一度炙手可热的名字都没有出现在拍品名录里,一幅丹·里斯(Dan Rees)2014年的小型抽象画《Gravelmaster》预估价在6000镑到8000镑,没有吸引到买家出价。This kind of abstraction was looking “basically unsellable,” leaving three bidders to contest instead a safer Rudolf Stingel mock wallpaper painting from 2005 — in highly commercial gold enamel — to a top price of £386,500, just above the high estimate. Most prices at Phillips were at the low estimates, but 72 percent of the works did find buyers.这类抽象作品似乎“基本上卖不出去”了,三名拍卖者转而竞拍一幅更安全的作品:鲁道夫·斯丁格尔(Rudolf Stingel)2005年有高价镀金层的仿壁纸油画,把价格抬到了38.65万镑,正好高过最高估价。菲利普斯拍卖会上的大多数拍品都以最低预估价成交,但72%的拍品都找到了买家。Yet at the galleries that supply these auctions, collectors were continuing to pay significant sums for market-fresh works by artists who they think might still be in demand in the 2030s, or at least at the end of this decade.然而在举办这些拍卖会的画廊里,收藏家们还在花费大笔金钱,购买新上市的艺术家作品,他们觉得到了本世纪30年代,至少是到了2020年左右,这些作品就会被市场需求。The “Ecriture” paintings of Park Seo-bo, a pioneer of the recently re-evaluated Korean monochrome movement called Dansaekhwa, are on show through March 12 at White Cube Mason’s Yard in London. Fourteen of these contemplative calligraphic abstracts, ranging in date from 1967 to 1981, were released for sale by the artist, who is now 84, and all have sold for between 0,000 and 0,000.韩国单色画(Dansaekhwa)的价值这几年正重新被世人认识,其先驱朴栖甫的作品《写作》(Ecriture)将于3月12日在伦敦的白立方梅森苑(White Cube Mason’s Yard)展出。这一系列的14幅当代书法抽象作品是这位现年84岁的画家于1967年到1981年期间创作的,已经全被售出,价格在40万美元到65万美元之间。Nate Lowman, 37, is a New York artist whose 2011 “Marilyn” paintings, which cannily combine echoes of de Kooning and Warhol, resold for as much as 0,000 at auction in 2014. On Tuesday evening, the London gallery of Massimo de Carlo presented some 15 black-and-white paintings by Mr. Lowman derived from photographs of the elaborately patterned ceiling of his studio. Priced at 0,000 to 0,000, four of these paintings quickly found buyers, with several others on hold.37岁的内特·洛曼(Nate Lowman)是一位纽约艺术家,他于2011年创作的《玛丽莲》(Marilyn)系列油画巧妙地结合了德库宁(de Kooning)与沃霍尔(Warhol)的影响,2014年重新拍卖时,拍出了87万美元。周二晚上,伦敦玛西莫·德·卡洛(Massimo de Carlo)画廊将推出15幅洛曼的黑白油画,素材来自他工作室花纹精美的天花板的照片。这些画定价在12万美元到25万美元,其中四幅很快找到了买家,有几幅没能卖出去。Something quite different was on offer at Condo, a new collaborative exhibition by 24 emerging galleries sp across eight spaces in London.Condo是一个由24个新画廊最近推出的合作展,在伦敦的八个空间举行,提供了一些不同的东西。The event, which began Jan. 16 and ends on Saturday, was conceived by Vanessa Carlos, a co-founder of the London gallery Carlos/Ishikawa, as a cost-effective alternative to fairs. Dealers from a range of countries paid just £600 to be guest exhibitors. Unlike at a fair, entrance for visitors was free. Prices for work were generally in four figures.这项活动自1月16日开始,于本周六结束,它与艺术展会相比,可谓经济实惠,创意来自凡妮莎·卡洛斯(Vanessa Carlos),她是伦敦画廊卡洛斯/石川(Carlos/Ishikawa)的联合创始人。各国交易商花费600镑,就可以成为参展者。和艺术展会不同,参观者是免费进入的。作品价格一般在四位数左右。“The habit of collectors going to galleries has diminished because of art fairs,” said Tom Cole, a co-director of The Sunday Painter, a gallery in Peckham, in southeast London. “Trying to find alternative models to show a program and get a name out there has become more and more important.”“由于艺术展,收藏家已经没有进画廊的习惯了,”西南伦敦佩卡姆的“星期日画家”(The Sunday Painter)画廊的总监之一汤姆·科尔(Tom Cole)说,“找到另一种展出项目的模式,推出新画家,已经变得愈来愈重要。”Mr. Cole said that about 500 people visited his gallery on the first Saturday of Condo, compared with the 10 or 20 who might attend the Saturday of a typical exhibition. Among his sales was “Not Too Clever Emoticon,” a 2013 sculpture made from a glass-panel heater by the gallery’s artist Rob Chavasse, priced at £4,000.科尔说,在Condo展开展的第一个周六,有大约500人参观了他的画廊,平日里周六大约只有10到20人来。他出售的作品包括《不怎么聪明的图示》(Not Too Clever Emoticon),这是一件2013年的雕塑作品,由玻璃板加热器制成,作者是画廊签约艺术家罗布·查瓦斯(Rob Chavasse),标价为4000英镑。Largely free from the commercial pressures of an art fair, Condo displayed works that could also be refreshingly confrontational. Arcadia Missa, also in Peckham, showed a joint multimedia installation combining works by the American artist A.L. Steiner, of the collective Chicks on Speed, and the British feminist artist Phoebe Collings-James. The latter’s 2016 sculpture “Oh My Darling, Clementine,” consisting of two glazed ceramic clementines in a plastic netting bag, was sold for a price between £1,000 and £2,000.Condo几乎没有艺术展需要面对的商业压力,展出的作品中不少都颇具挑衅性,令人眼前一亮。阿卡迪亚·米沙(Arcadia Missa)画廊同样位于佩卡姆,展出了一个联合多媒体装置作品,是由美国艺术家A·L·斯坦纳(A.L. Steiner)与英国女权主义艺术家菲比·柯林斯-詹姆斯(Phoebe Collings-James)合作的,斯坦纳属于“Chicks on Speed”组织,柯林斯-詹姆斯2016年的雕塑《啊我亲爱的小柑橘》(Oh My Darling, Clementine)是两个闪亮的陶制小柑橘,放在一个塑料网兜里,价格在1000英镑到2000英镑。At this price level, collectors can happily engage with the zeitgeist, without worrying too much if the work they bought will be salable a few decades down the road.在这个价格水平上,收藏家可以愉快地成为时代精神的一部分,同时又不至于担心这件作品到头来要过几十年才能卖出去。 /201603/429159

  。

  Liu Zongyuan (773~819) was a Chinese writer who lived in Chang#39;an during the Tang Dynasty. He was traditionally classed as one of the Eight Great Prose Masters of the Tang and Song.柳宗元(773~819),中国唐代作家,唐宋八大家之一。Along with Han Yu, he was a founder of the Classical Prose Movement.他居于长安,与韩愈一起发起了古文运动。His civil service career was initially successful, but in 805 he fell from favour because of his association with a failed reformist movement. He was exiled first to Yongzhou (Hunan Province ), and then to Liuzhou (Guangxi Province).柳宗元的官场生活起初非常成功,但是805年他因与一场不成功的改革派运动有关而失宠,首先被贬到永州(湖南境内),之后又被贬到柳州(广西境内)。However, this setback allowed his literary career to flourish: he produced poems, fables, reflective travelogues and essays sythesizing elements of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism.然而,官场上的挫折却使得柳宗元的文学事业繁荣了起来: 他创作了诗歌、寓言、游记以及融合了儒释道思想元素的散文。Liu Zongyuan produced many examples of clear and charming prose and became reputed as one of the renowned ;Eight Masters of Tang and Song.;柳宗元写了许多清晰迷人的散文,成为著名的唐宋八大家之一。柳宗元最著名的游记是《永州八记》。His best-known travel pieces are the Eight Records of Excursions in Yongzhou. Around 180 of his poems are extant.现存柳诗约180首。Some of his works celebrate his freedom from office, while others mourn his banishment.尽管他的一些作品中对遭贬表示遗憾,但是他的一些作品也表明他很庆幸自己能够远离官场。 /201601/422051

  Liao Dynasty辽朝Decline衰落By the mid 11th century, the Khitan had lost their morale and started adopting a defensive attitude towards their neighbors.11世纪中期,契丹丢失了他们的士气,对于他们的邻国开始采取一种防备的态度。This was in part due to the influence of Buddhism and the fad that they had absorbed much of Chinese culture, which had a negative effect on their manners.这在一部分上缘于他们受到了佛教和过多的中国文化的影响,因此对他们自己的行为产生了负面的作用。Around the 12th century, the empire#39;s slow decline sped up as a result of succession problems, natural disasters, and the positive progress of the Jurchen in the north east.12世纪左右,由于一系列问题、自然灾害以及东北部女真族的积极发展,辽朝的缓慢衰落加快了。More pressure was put on the Khitan when the Jurchen and Song made an alliance against them and in 1124----1125, the Khitan Empire collapsed.当女真和宋朝结成联军展开攻势后,契丹的压力更大了,1124年到1125年间,契丹帝国灭亡了。 /201512/406490

  The founder of Shu-Han,Liu Bei,the descendant of Han Jingdi#39;s son Liu Sheng, came from Zhuo prefecture (near present-day Beijing).刘备,蜀汉的开国皇帝,汉景帝之子中山靖王刘胜的后代。Liu Bei was born in a poor family and lived by selling shoes and weaving straw mat.刘备居于河北涿州(今北京附近),少年孤贫,以贩鞋织草席为生。However, he acquired his first reputation in warfare against the Yellow Turban rebellion of 184 and swore to be brothers with Zhang Fei, Guan Yu, who are both in the following years of fighting devoted to him until death.公元184年黄巾起义时,刘备与关羽、张飞桃园结义,成为异姓兄弟,一同剿除黄巾有功。When civil war caused by Dong Zhuo broke out he served Gongsun Zan to fight against Dong Zhuo. Later he allied himself with the warlords: Cao Cao,Yuan Shao,and Liu Biao one after another and held short-lived power over substantial territory in the north of China.董卓乱政之际,刘备随公孙璜讨伐董卓,刘备势力弱小,经常寄人篱下,先后投靠过曹操、袁绍、刘表等人,几经波折,却仍无自己的地盘。In 200, however, at the time of the campaign between Cao Cao and Yuan Shao at Guan-du, Liu Bei was thoroughly defeated by Cao Cao ’ s forces and fled to take refuge with Liu Biao.公元200年,在曹操与袁绍的官渡之战中,刘备被曹操打败,投奔刘表。Liu did, however, maintain the followers who had accompanied him into exile ,and it was at this time while stationing in Xinye Xu Shu, one of his assistants, recommended Zhuge Liang, a master of strategies to him.但在流亡过程中却一直有人跟随刘备,屯兵新野时,徐庶为其幕僚,向刘推荐诸葛亮。Liu Bei visited and consulted Zhuge Liang three times and the latter agreed to serve him as minister. With the help of Zhuge Liang, Sun-Liu allies defeated Cao Cao from the north at the Red Cliffs and Liu Bei established a position in the southern part of Jing prefecture which laid the fundation for the three kingdoms.刘备在荆州三顾茅庐,请诸葛亮出山辅助,在诸葛亮的帮助下,赤壁之战宁,联合孙权打败曹操,占领荆州,奠定了三分天下的基础。In 211 Liu Bei was invited into Yi prefecture by the Governor, Liu Zhang, to assist him in dealing with enemies on his northern borders.211年受刘璋请求来益州共同防御北方边界。In the summer of 214 Liu Bei seized Yi prefecture and established his own regime at Chengdu.214年夏,刘备攻取益州在成都建立政权。In 219 the decisive victory over Xiahou Yuan obtained Liu Bei’s control of the Han valley, and gave justification for his claim to the royal and then imperial title of Han with an area covering Jing and Yi prefectures.219年,刘备大败曹将夏侯渊,夺取汉中,称汉中王,建立了横跨荆益两州的政权。In the further east line, however, the destruction of Guan Yu, and the failure of Liu Bei’s expedition , aiming at taking revenge for Guan Yu in 222 restricted the territory of Han to Yi province. Despite its imperial pretensions Shu-Han never recovered from those massive defeats.在东线关羽被杀,刘备为给关羽报仇,公元222年,发兵大举进攻东吴兵败。Liu Bei fled to Baidi city and died there in Yong’an Palace in the following year.When Liu Bei died in 223, his son Liu Chan was seventeen, but Zhuge Liang acted as regent and held control of the government. He confirmed the alliance with Wu, and in campaigns to the south during 224 and 225 he established reign over the territory and people as far as the Lake Dian in present-day Yunnan.刘备兵败逃至白帝城,次年病死于白帝城的永安宫。蜀汉一蹶不振,势力一直被局限在益州。刘备死后,其子刘禅继位,是为蜀后主,刘禅17岁由诸葛亮等人辅助,主张与吴国交好。公元224 ~225年,诸葛亮平定南中,势力涉及滇池(今云南境内)。In 227 he turned his attention to the Wei in the north : from Hanzhong he launched a series of attacks across the Qinling Range, however, was quickly destroyed by the Wei gen-eral Sima Yi,and Zhuge Liang was not able to achieve a position.向北为了实现刘备的遗愿,诸葛亮自蜀建兴五年至十二年(227 ~ 234)六次从汉中出兵向秦岭伐魏,但均告失利。In 233 Zhuge U-ang embarked on a renewed attempt to break the line of the mountain barrier , however, he was, successfully opposed by Sima Yi, and died in the following year in front.233年,在发起突破秦岭防线时,被司马懿击破,本人也于公元234年卒于两军阵前。After a short period of intrigue and confusion,Zhuge Uang ’ s position as com-mander-in-chief and head of government was taken by Jiang Wei.诸葛亮死后,姜维继任军士统帅和丞相。Like Zhuge Liang ,Jiang Wei had his headquarters in Hanzhong on the frontier against Wei, and the central administration at Chengdu was maintained by a secondary office.姜维仍以汉中为攻魏前哨,以成都为总部。In 244, Jiang Wei became ill and failed to function effectively, and at his death in 246 Liu Chan, now forty years old, took formal authority at the capital.244年,姜维病重,不能有效行使权力。246年姜维病逝时,刘禅40岁已独立行使皇权。Despite his maturity Liu Chan was an unimpressive ruler. He was more interested in his harem and his personal pleasures than in the responsibilities of government, therefore he gave excessive power to his favourite Chen Zhi and the eunuch Huang Hao.刘禅是一个没有作为的皇帝,他不问政事,贪恋后宫声色,将朝中大事交给宠臣陈志和太监黄浩。Sima Yi was a well-known strategist and stateman in Chinese history, and in fighting against Zhuge Liang and Jiang Wei,he succeeded in preventing Shu-Han from expanding northernwards.司马懿是我国著名的军事家、政治家。他多次出兵汉中,与诸葛亮、姜维等蜀将交战,遏制了蜀国的北扩。In 226, Wei Emperor Cao Pi died and his son Cao Rui succeeded the throne.此间,魏帝曹丕已于魏黄初七薨(226)。Sima Yi acted as Chief Minister to serve the emperor , then ttie control of government was gradually transferred to the hands of Sima family.其子曹睿继位,以司马懿为辅政大臣。此后,魏国大权逐渐落人司马氏手中。In 263,after the Sima family had established control of the government of Wei, they planned the attack on Shu-Han. Sima Zhao, son of Sima Yi, and two generals Zhong Hui and Deng Ai launched attack on Shu Han. In the autumn of 263 they captured the passes into Hanzhong, and while one army held Jiang Wei in the northwest, the general Deng Ai went forward to attack Chengdu.魏景元四年 (263)在魏政权归司马氏之后,司马懿之子司马昭派遣钟会、邓艾等数路人马伐蜀,并于当年夏天控制了通往汉中的要塞,将姜维困在西北,由邓艾继续攻打成都。In the winter, after victory in one pitched battle, he received the surrender of Liu Chan. And in the summer of 264 Liu Chan was received into honoured exile at Luoyang, thus Shu-Han perished.当年冬天攻破成都,后主刘禅降魏,并于264年夏流放至洛阳,蜀汉灭亡。Shu-Han took the same measures of land reclamation and developed the irrigating system. As a far reaching area, the development of agriculture was not damaged as that of in the Yellow River Valley and there was no famine heard. At hat time the silk of Shu was well-known and trade within domestic was prosperous and Chengdu, the capital of Shu was the commercial centre.蜀在耕地方面没有什么改制,也实行屯田,水利做得比较好,由于地处偏远蜀汉没有像中原那样遭到严重破坏,也没有发生粮荒,丝织业发达,蜀锦有名,境内贸易发达,成都商业繁荣,蜀汉农业自始至终未遭破坏。After Zhuge Liang destroyed the non-Chinese alliance led by Meng Huo, he left the people under continuing control by their native leaders, and confirmed that power with seals and other emblems of authority although in formal terms, they were subjects of Shu-Han. All these practices facilitate the tranquility of Shu-Han.在平定了南方少数民族孟获的叛乱之后,他们成为蜀汉的臣民,但仍由其首领继续管理内部事务,这有利于蜀汉政权的稳定。 /201512/415714A healthy test tube baby was born Wednesday in northwest China#39;s Shaanxi Province from an embryo frozen 12 years ago, a record on the Chinese mainland.周三,一个健康的试管婴儿出生于中国西北部的陕西省一个冷冻了12年的胚胎,这也创造了中国大陆的一项纪录。On Wednesday morning, a 40-year-old woman gave birth to her second son, weighing 3,440 grams at birth at Tangdu Hospital in provincial capital Xi#39;an.周三早上,一名40岁的妇女在省会西安唐都医院生育出自己的第二个儿子,孩子重达3440克。She suffers from blocked fallopian tubes and polycystic ovary syndrome, a health problem that can affect a woman#39;s fertility and pregnancy. She began trying to get pregnant through IVF in 2003. That year, doctors harvested 12 of her eggs and created 12 embryos with her husband#39;s sperm. They implanted two fresh embryos to her womb, and froze the remaining seven that they considered viable.据悉,她患有输卵管阻塞和多卵巢囊综合征,这是会影响到妇女不的一个健康问题。2003年,她开始试图通过试管受精怀。那年,医生采集了12枚她的卵子,然后用她丈夫的精子创造出12个胚胎。他们把两个新鲜的胚胎植入她的子宫,然后冷冰了七个可用胚胎。Li gave birth to a healthy boy in 2004, and has since spent three yuan per day to store the embryos in the hospital in case of an emergency. Last year, when China dropped its one-child policy, she decided to have a second child.2004年,李某生育出了一个健康的男孩,自那以后,她每天花费三元在医院储存胚胎,以防万一。去年,当中国取消独生子政策后,她决定再生一个。Three embryos survived the thawing process. The two best were implanted in her womb, but only one survived.在解冻过程中,三枚胚胎存活了下来。两个品质最好的移植入了她的子宫,但是只有一个存活了下来。;The success rate of implanted thawed embryos is more than 40 percent in our hospital, so doctors usually place more than one embryo at a time,; said Wang Xiaohong, director of Tangdu Hospital reproductive medicine center.唐都医院生殖医药中心主任王晓红说道:“我们医院移植冷冻胚胎的成功率大于40%,因此,医生通常每次会多植入几个。”;Our first boy is 12 years old now. The purpose of freezing the embryos was to have a second child some day, and luckily, we succeeded,; said her husband.李某的丈夫说:“我们的第一个孩子已经12岁了。冷冻胚胎的目的就是为了有第二个孩子,幸运地是,我们成功了。”The infertility rate is high in China. China Population Association statistics from 2012 showed 40 million people with fertility issues, accounting for around 12.5 percent of the population at child-bearing age.中国的不率很高。中国人口学会2012年以来的数据显示,有4000万人患有不不育,占育龄人口的12.5%。;IVF is one of the most effective assisted reproduction techniques for treating of infertility,; said Wang.王晓红主任说:“试管婴儿是治疗不不育最有效的辅助生殖技术之一。”Tangdu Hospital began to freeze embryos for infertile couples in 2003. Up to now, it has frozen around 100,000 embryos, thawed more than 27,000, and created 4,293 healthy test-tube babies.2003年,唐都医院开始为不夫妇冷冻胚胎。迄今为止,已经冷冻了大约十万个胚胎,解冻27000多个,育了4293个健康的试管婴儿。 /201603/428958

  

  Do you ever think that it#39;s kinda crazy that we can order pizza from our cellphones and yet no one can figure out how to stop (or at least slow) the inevitable march towards death? Well, you#39;re not alone.你是否想过,人类已经发展到可以用手机订披萨的程度,为什么却无法阻止(或减慢)自身走向死亡的步伐?好吧,并不是只有你一个人这么想过。Science has been trying to figure out this whole aging thing for a long time now, and a new development just could be one of those watershed moments in history.长久以来,科学界一直在试图解开人类衰老的谜团。而一项最新的研究成果或有望成为改变历史的分水岭之一。According to the New Zealand Herald, a new anti-aging drug is going to be tested on human subjects starting next year. The potential result of this could mean that we, human beings, could extend our life spans to 120 years of age and be in good health to the very end.据《新西兰先锋报》报道,一种新型抗衰老药物将于明年开始在人体上进行试验。可能的结果是,我们人类的寿命因此延长至120年,而且在寿终正寝前一直保持健康。The drug in question is a widely used diabetes pill called Metformin and costs mere cents to make. Metformin helps to increase oxygen flow on the cellular level, thereby slowing the necessary cell divisions that keep our bodies both functioning correctly but ultimately lead to aging.这种药物名为“甲福明”,是一种被广泛使用的抗糖尿病药,制造成本不过几分钱。甲福明能促进氧在细胞内的循环流动,进而降低细胞分裂的速度——细胞分裂在保我们身体正常运转的同时,也是导致我们衰老的罪魁祸首。Belgian researchers have tested the drug on roundworms, and have had positive results so the next step is to do a human trial.比利时研究者已将该药物在蛔虫身上进行了试验,取得了积极的效果,下一步就是人体试验。;I have been doing research into aging for 25 years and the idea that we would be talking about a clinical trial in humans for an anti-aging drug would have been thought inconceivable,; says aging expert Professor Gordon Lithgow.研究衰老的专家戈登·利思戈教授说:“我研究衰老25年了。我们将要在人体上进行的抗衰老药临床试验,此前一直被认为是不可想象的。”;But there is every reason to believe it#39;s possible. The future is taking the biology that we#39;ve now developed and applying it to humans.;“但我们现在有理由相信这种试验是可行的。未来方向是把我们研发出来的各种生物机理应用于人体。”Let#39;s just hope that cosmetic surgery can keep apace of these new developments.但愿我们的整容术能跟得上这些最新的科学发展。 /201512/414043。

  A new treatment for suicidal patients in South Korea involves locking them up in wooden coffins. The fake ;death experience; apparently helps students appreciate life better after confronting a simulated version of their last moments.韩国出现自杀倾向患者新疗法,躺入木棺思考人生。在直面模拟的“临终时刻”后,假死经历有助于人们更加珍惜生命。The rate of suicide in Korea is on the rise, with about 40 people killing themselves every day. Experts believe that the nation#39;s super-competitive atmosphere is responsible for so many cases of depression and suicide. And according to theSeoul Hyowon Healing Center, the solution to this crisis lies in their #39;death experience#39; therapy.韩国的自杀率不断上涨,每天都有多达40人自杀。专家认为韩国过于激烈的竞争环境是导致人们抑郁、自杀的罪魁祸首。Seoul Hyowon治疗中心称,他们推出的“死亡体验”疗法是消除自杀危机的良方。Participants at the centre come from all walks of life, including teenagers who struggle with pressure at school, older parents experiencing isolation, and the elderly who are afraid of becoming a financial burden on their families. They all don white robes and get into coffins arranged in rows. Beside each coffin is a small desk with pens and paper. Students sit inside the coffins and listen to a short talk by Jeong Yong-mun, a former funeral worker who is now the head of the healing centre. He explains to them that they should accept their problems as a part of life and try to find joy in the most difficult situations.治疗中心的患者来自社会各界,有纠结于学业压力的青少年,有被孤立的年老父母,也有害怕成为家庭经济负担的老人们。他们身着白袍,进入一排排的棺材中。每个棺材旁都设有一张小桌,桌上放有纸和笔。患者们需要坐在棺材里,听前丧葬工作人员、现治疗中心负责人郑永门(Jeong Yong-mun)讲一段话。这段话中,他劝解患者们应将困难视为生活的一部分,试着苦中作乐。The students then lie down in the coffin and close their eyes to have a #39;funeral portrait#39; taken. Afterwards, they write down their will or compose a farewell letter to their loved ones, and their last words aloud to the group. When the #39;hour of death#39; approaches, they are told that it is now time to #39;go to the other side#39;. Candles are lit and the #39;Korean Angel of Death#39; enters the room. The students lie down in their coffins once more, and the angel closes the lid on each one of them.而后,患者们需要躺入棺中,合上双眼,照一张“遗像”。之后,写下遗嘱,或是给亲人写一封告别信,并大声朗读。当“死亡”降临时,工作人员会告诉他们是时候“去另一边了”。而后点燃蜡烛,韩国的死亡天使就会走进屋来。此时,学生们再次躺入棺中,死亡天使会为每位患者合上双眼。They are left alone in the dark for about 10 minutes, during which time they are faced with the idea of #39;nothingness#39; in the after-life. They are encouraged to use this time to contemplate on life from an outsider#39;s perspective. When they finally emerge from their coffins, they claim to feel #39;refreshed#39; and #39;liberated#39;. Jeong Yong-mun enters the room once more to tell them: “You have seen what death feels like, you are alive, and you must fight!”之后,工作人员退出房间,患者们将在黑暗中度过10分钟,体会死后的“虚无”。治疗中心鼓励他们以局外人的角度,用这段时间思考人生。当他们从棺材中出来时,都觉得“焕然一新”、“得到了解脱”。而后,郑永门再次进屋,告诉他们:“你们已经体会到了死亡的感觉,但是你们还活着,必须奋斗!”The idea of the experience is to dwell on the #39;collateral damage#39; of death and to think about how much pain they might cause their loved ones by choosing to end their lives.这趟死亡体验的主旨就是让患者想想死亡的“附带伤害”,体会一下终结生命时,他们给亲人带来的痛苦。Coffin therapy is not a new concept – we came across it a few years ago when a coffin maker from Ukraine offered people the chance to get inside some of his comfortable creations. We also heard of a psychotherapy clinic in Shenyang, China, where people with psychological problems were treated with death therapy. Most people who tried it reported feeling very relaxed and positive afterwards.棺材疗法以前就有。几年前,一位乌克兰的棺材匠曾允许人们躺入他制作的舒适棺材中,而我们也是那时候才发现的。我们还听说中国沈阳的一家心理诊所也利用死亡疗法治疗心理疾病。大部分接受治疗的患者都表示非常轻松,心情也阳光起来。 /201511/407532

  

  An Indonesian monkey that achieved Internet celebrity with a grinning selfie cannot own the photograph’s copyright, a federal judge said this week.本周(1月3日至9日),美国一位联邦法官称,因大笑自拍在网上走红的一只印尼猴子不拥有照片的版权。People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals had argued in ed States District Court in San Francisco that the rights to the photograph, which was snapped using a photographer’s unattended camera, rightfully belonged to the monkey, a crested macaque.善待动物组织(Ethical Treatment of Animals)在旧金山的美国地方法院为这只黑冠猕猴争取照片所有权。照片是这只猴子用摄影师故意放在那里的相机自拍的。In a tentative opinion on Wednesday, Judge William H. Orrick disagreed.周三(1月6日),威廉·H·奥里克法官(William H. Orrick)在一份初步意见书上对他们的主张表示反对。“While Congress and the president can extend the protection of law to animals as well as humans,” he wrote, “there is no indication that they did so in the copyright act.”他写道:“虽然国会和总统可以把法律保护的范围扩展到不同人群甚至动物身上,但是在版权方面他们没有这样做过。”The images were taken during a trip by the British photographer, David Slater, to the Tangkoko Reserve on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi in 2011. He put his camera on a tripod amid a troop of macaques, setting it so it would automatically focus and wind, and waited for the animals to get curious.那些照片是英国摄影师大卫·斯莱特(David Slater)2011年在印度尼西亚苏拉威岛的Tangkoko保护区(Tangkoko Reserve)拍摄的。他把相机放在三脚架上,设为自动对焦,置于一群猕猴中间,等待它们产生好奇心。The results included the charming mug of the monkey, identified by PETA as a 6-year-old male, Naruto, grinning broadly and bucktoothed into the lens.拍出的照片包括这只猴子迷人的笑脸。善待动物组织认出他是一只6岁大的公猴,绰号火影忍者(Naruto)。他对着镜头大笑,露出门牙。Mr. Slater published a book, “Wildlife Personalities,” that included the pictures, and the images were widely shared online, including without permission by Wikipedia. When Mr. Slater asked the crowd-sourced website to remove the image, it refused under much the same rationale as PETA: Mr. Slater didn’t press the shutter release, so the image was not his.斯莱特出了一本名为《野生动物的个性》(Wildlife Personalities)的书,收录了这些照片。这些照片在网上广为流传,维基百科(Wikipedia)也未经授权用了照片。斯莱特要求这家由众人编辑的网站撤掉这张照片,该网站以与善待动物组织相似的理由拒绝了他:照片不是斯莱特拍的,所以不归他所有。In September, PETA filed its lawsuit against Mr. Slater, his company, and Blurb, the company that published his book, asking the judge to allow it to represent Naruto and distribute the image’s proceeds for the benefit of the Indonesian reserve’s crested macaques, a critically endangered species.去年9月,善待动物组织起诉斯莱特以及他的公司及其出版商Blurb,要求法官允许该组织代表火影忍者将照片的收益用于保护印度尼西亚保护区的严重濒危物种黑冠猕猴。The photographer’s lawyers asked a judge to dismiss the lawsuit on the grounds that a monkey lacks legal standing. Its motion, at times, struck a mocking tone.这位摄影师的律师们请求法官撤回起诉,理由是猴子没有法律地位。这份动议书不时带有揶揄口吻。“A monkey, an animal-rights organization and a primatologist walk into federal court to sue for infringement of the monkey’s claimed copyright. What seems like the setup for a punch line is really happening.”“一只猴子、一个动物权利保护组织和一位灵长类动物学家走进联邦法院,起诉这只猴子所谓的版权遭到侵犯。这听起来像是一则笑话的开头,没想到还真发生了。”Judge Orrick explained from the bench on Wednesday that he had no authority to extend such rights to animals.周三(1月6日),奥里克法官在法庭上解释说,他无权将这样的权利赋予动物。“This is an issue for Congress and the president,” he said, according to Ars Technica. “If they think animals should have the right of copyright, they’re free, I think, under the Constitution, to do that.”据Ars Technica网站称,奥里克法官说:“这是国会和总统的事。如果他们认为动物应该拥有版权,那么我觉得按照宪法,他们有权这样做。”Last July, another legal effort to reinterpret the rights of other primates failed to persuade a judge. The Nonhuman Rights Project argued in a State Supreme Court in Manhattan that two apes being held by a university for research were “legal persons,” highly intelligent and self-aware, and should be removed to a sanctuary. The judge took the case seriously, but ultimately decided that under the law, Hercules and Leo were property, not people.去年7月,另一次重新阐释其他灵长类动物权利的法律行动也没有赢得法官的持。非人类权利计划(Nonhuman Rights Project)在曼哈顿的州最高法院要求释放一所大学拘禁的两只用作研究的类人猿,称它们是“法人”,具有很高的智商和自我意识,应该被送往保护区。那位法官认真对待这一案件,但是最终判定,依照法律,赫尔克里士(Hercules)和利奥(Leo)是财产,不是人。Despite PETA’s setback this week, the group cast its unorthodox legal battle as a crucial step toward enlarging the rights of animals.尽管本周善待动物组织遇到了挫折,但是该组织认为自己的非正统法律诉讼是扩大动物权利的重要一步。“We will continue to fight for Naruto and his fellow macaques,” Jeff Kerr, an attorney for PETA, said in a statement, adding “As my legal mentor used to say, ‘In social-cause cases, historically, you lose, you lose, you lose, and then you win.’”善待动物组织的律师杰夫·克尔(Jeff Kerr)在声明中说:“我们将继续为火影忍者和他的同伴争取权利。”他还说,“就像我的法律导师过去常说的,‘从历史角度看,社会事业方面的案子,总是败诉、败诉、败诉,坚持到最后就是胜利。’” /201601/422693

  • 飞度新闻健康调查丹阳妇幼保健人民中心医院激光去痘手术价格
  • 镇江无痛隆鼻收多少钱
  • 南京botox除皱的效果飞度排名好医院在线
  • 飞度【动态新闻网】苏州大学附属第二医院祛疤多少钱
  • 飞度免费医生南京市第一医院激光祛斑价格
  • 镇江去蝴蝶斑多少钱
  • 南京市妇幼保健医院祛眼袋多少钱飞度咨询免费咨询
  • 飞度新闻四川新闻网无锡市第九人民医院botox瘦脸针botox去皱botox瘦腿多少钱
  • 南京哪家除皱医院好
  • 南京高鼻梁整形飞度管家免费平台
  • 滁州脱小腿毛多少钱
  • 飞管家搜医生南京眼袋怎么消除
  • 南京去除黑眼圈多少钱飞管家在线咨询南京长征医院减肥瘦身多少钱
  • 南京吸脂手术哪里好
  • 南京附属医院祛疤痕价格
  • 南京自体脂肪移植隆胸
  • 飞排名养生问答铜陵做眼角除皱手术多少钱
  • 江苏省肿瘤医院打美白针价格
  • 南京自体软骨隆鼻价格
  • 双眼皮韩辰
  • 马鞍山市中心医院去痣多少钱
  • 飞度管家搜医生南京韩式飘眉价格
  • 飞度咨询免费咨询南京祛痘印哪家医院好飞度新闻养生医生
  • 南京武警医院激光去黄褐斑价格飞度快问答网南京玄武区做隆胸多少钱
  • 飞度排名在线咨询江苏省附属医院激光去烫伤的疤价格飞度新闻四川新闻网
  • 江苏省苏北人民医院激光除皱手术多少钱
  • 苏州大学附属第一医院做去疤手术价格
  • 南京隆鼻用哪种材料好
  • 南京整形美容医院痤疮治疗怎么样
  • 广德县人民医院打美白针多少钱
  • 相关阅读
  • 南京中西医结合医院美容中心
  • 飞度新闻医院表南京注射嘟嘟唇
  • 南京整形医院洗眉
  • 飞度技术快速问医生南京腋臭怎么治疗
  • 江苏省武警医院隆鼻价格飞度管家健康家园
  • 江苏省红十字儿童医院做隆鼻手术价格
  • 飞度咨询免费答南京省人民医院光子嫩肤价格
  • 南京做整形优惠活动
  • 南京韩辰整形医院打玻尿酸多少钱
  • 飞度咨询永州新闻南京凹陷性疤痕凹陷性痘疤鼻尖扁平整形要多少费用飞度技术三甲医院
  • 责任编辑:飞度新闻云专家

    相关搜索

      为您推荐